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2007-2008 University Catalog

    Academic Majors/Minors

All Course Descriptions

ACCT 2014 Principles of Accounting I
A general introduction emphasizing procedural aspects of accounting data in decision-making. Various accounting methods for single proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations are explored.

ACCT 2134 Principles of Accounting II
The concepts of cost in developing information for management use in the determination of income, the selection of activities or projects, and the measurement of performance. Prerequisite: ACCT 2014.

ACCT 3022 Independent Study
A study of the tools and techniques of research, the use of the library and Internet resources, and the planning and execution of a research project with a written report. May be repeated for a total of two units of credit. (1/2 course unit.) Standard or CR/NC grading.

ACCT 3024 Independent Study
A study of the tools and techniques of research, the use of the library and Internet resources, and the planning and execution of a research project with a written report. May be repeated for a total of two units of credit. (1 course unit.) Standard or CR/NC grading.

ACCT 3034 Intermediate Accounting I
A more advanced study of the functions, theory, and practice of accounting and of their relationship to business management; the usefulness and limitations of accounting in providing information on financial activities, the acquisition of assets and services, the determination of income, and equity interests; the features of internal control; and the presentation, interpretation, and analysis of financial statements. Prerequisite: ACCT 2134.

ACCT 3044 Intermediate Accounting II
A continuation of ACCT 3034.

ACCT 3084 Governmental Accounting
The application of accounting principles to governmental and nonprofit organizations. Topics include budgets for resource management and the operation of general and special revenue funds. Prerequisite: ACCT 2134.

ACCT 3094 Income Taxation
A presentation of the U.S. income tax system applicable to individuals, partnerships, and corporations, including topics such as the determination of gross income, business and personal deductions, and accounting methods. Prerequisite: ACCT 2134.

ACCT 3144 Cost Accounting
Presentation of cost accumulation methods, responsibility accounting, budgeting, and the entire spectrum of cost and profit analysis. Emphasis on developing information for management use in the determination of income, selection of activities (or projects), and the measurement of performance. Specific topics include process costing, joint and by-product costs, decision models, cost behavior, and variance analysis. Prerequisite: ACCT 2134.

ACCT 3212 Special Topics in Accounting
This course will be offered in May term periodically in order to present creative or special topics of interest in the area of accounting. (1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

ACCT 3214 Special Topics in Accounting
This course will be offered in May term periodically in order to present creative or special topics of interest in the area of accounting. (1 course unit.) Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

ACCT 4002 Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA)
Designed to provide free tax assistance to persons who cannot afford professional tax help. Volunteers assist with simple tax returns, particularly those of low income, elderly, or handicapped individuals. (1/2 course unit.) May be repeated twice for credit. CR/NC grading.

ACCT 4014 Auditing
Emphasizes concepts that enable the student to understand the philosophy and environment of auditing. Presents an overview of the public accounting profession, with special attention to auditing standards, professional ethics, legal liability, study and evaluation of internal control, nature of evidence, statistical sampling, impact of electronic data processing, and the basic approach to planning an audit. Prerequisites: ACCT 3034, 3044.

ACCT 4024 Partnerships, Trusts & Estates
Covers current controversial topics in accounting such as pension, leases, and price level accounting. Also includes the more traditional topics of partnerships, joint ventures, and branch accounting. Prerequisites: ACCT 3034, 3044.

ACCT 4034 Corporate Consolidations
A continuation of ACCT 4024, with primary emphasis on in-depth coverage of corporate consolidations. Includes topics such as minority interest and pooling or purchase of interests. Prerequisite: ACCT 3034 and 3044.

ACCT 4054 Accounting Theory
Includes an analysis of the Accounting Principles Board's opinions and statements. The more current Financial Accounting Standards Board pronouncements are also studied. Prerequisites: ACCT 3034, 3044.

ACCT 4202 Internship in Accounting
Study of accounting in business operations. Participants will interact with accountants in auditing, taxation, and management services within a CPA firm, business entity, or government office. Research on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor and the agency will be required. (1/2 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

ACCT 4204 Internship in Accounting
Study of accounting in business operations. Participants will interact with accountants in auditing, taxation, and management services within a CPA firm, business entity, or government office. Research on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor and the agency will be required. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

ACCT 4208 Internship in Accounting
Study of accounting in business operations. Participants will interact with accountants in auditing, taxation, and management services within a CPA firm, business entity, or government office. Research on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor and the agency will be required. (2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

ACCT 4444 Senior Seminar in Accounting
A synthesis of the various areas of accounting. In-depth study of accounting problems, with primary emphasis on the application of current accounting theory to problem solving. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ACCT 4034.

AFS 1111 Aerospace Studies I
A course designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of the nature and principles of war, national power, and the Department of Defense role in the organization of national security. The student also develops leadership abilities by participating in a military organization, the cadet corps, which offers a wide variety of situations demanding effective leadership. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 1120 Leadership Seminar
A course designed for development of basic skills required to be a manager, including communications, human relations, and administration of equal opportunity. Credit will not be granted toward the hours requirements for the degree. CR/NC grading. Corequisite: AFS 1111. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 1131 Aerospace Studies I
A course designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of the contribution of aerospace power to the total U.S. strategic offensive and defensive military posture. The student also develops leadership abilities by participating in a military organization, the cadet corps, which offers a wide variety of situations demanding effective leadership. Prerequisite: AFS 1111. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 1140 Leadership Seminar
A continuation of AFS 1131. A course designed to develop managerial skills including superior/subordinate relationships, communications, customs and courtesies, basic drill movements and career progression requirements. Credit will not be granted toward the hours requirements for the degree. CR/NC grading. Corequisite: AFS 1131. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 2111 Aerospace Studies II
Introduces the study of air power from a historical perspective; focuses on the development of air power into a primary element of national security. Leadership experience is continued through active participation in the cadet corps. Lecture, one hour; leadership laboratory, one hour. Prerequisite: AFS 1111, 1131 or PAS approval. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 2120 Leadership Seminar
A course designed for development of advanced skills required to be a manager/leader, including leadership styles, public speaking, group dynamics, motivation and preparation for field training. Credit will not be granted toward the hours requirements for the degree. CR/NC grading. Corequisite: AFS 2111. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 2131 Aerospace Studies II
Provides a foundation for understanding how air power has been employed in military and non-military operations to support national objectives. Examines the changing mission of the defense establishment, with particular emphasis on the United States Air Force. Leadership experience is continued through participation in the cadet corps. Lecture, one hour; leadership laboratory, one hour per week. Prerequisite: AFS 1111, 1131 or PAS approval. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 2140 Leadership Seminar
A continuation of AFS 2131. A course designed to develop supervisory management skills to include communications, techniques of critique, social actions, personnel evaluation procedures, problem solving, role playing and field training preparation. Credit will not be granted toward the hours requirements for the degree. CR/NC grading. Corequisite: AFS 2131. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 3114 Aerospace Studies III
A study of management functions with emphasis on the individual as a manager in an Air Force environment. Individual motivational and behavioral process, communication, and group dynamics are included to provide a foundation for the development of professional skills as an Air Force Officer. Students refine their leadership and managerial abilities by organizing and managing a quasi-military unit. Prerequisite: Acceptance into POC or approval of PAS. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 3120 Leadership Laboratory
A course designed and focused on developing advanced leadership skills. Students fill the mid-level management function within the cadet corps. The course involves the planning and controlling of military activities of the cadet corps, and the preparation and presentation of briefings and other written and oral communications. CR/NC grading. Corequisite: AFS 3111.

AFS 3134 Aerospace Studies III
A study of leadership with specific emphasis on the Air Force leader. Includes theoretical, professional and communicative aspects. In addition, military justice and administrative law are discussed within the context of the military organization. Students continue to develop and refine their leadership abilities by organizing and managing a military unit, the cadet corps, which offers a wide variety of situations requiring effective leadership. Prerequisite: AFS 3111. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 3140 Leadership Laboratory
Laboratory to accompany AFS 3134. CR/NC grading. Corequisite: AFS 3134. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 4114 Aerospace Studies IV
A study of the military profession, civil-military interaction, communicative skills, framework of defense policy, and formulation of defense strategy. Students refine their leadership abilities by organizing and managing a military unit, the cadet corps, which offers a wide variety of situations requiring effective leadership. Prerequisite: AFS 3134, ore approval of PAS. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 4120 Leadership Laboratory
A course designed and focused on developing advanced leadership skills. Students fill the top level management function within the cadet corps. The course involves the planning and controlling of military activities of the cadet corps, and the preparation and presentation of briefings and other written and oral communications. The lab also includes practice of leadership techniques aimed at motivating and instructing cadets in the lower three levels. CR/NC grading. Laboratory, two hours per week. Corequisite: AFS 4114. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 4134 Aerospace Studies IV
Continues the study of strategy and the management of conflict, formulation and implementation of U.S. defense policy, defense organization, and case studies in defense policy making. Students also refine their leadership abilities by organizing and managing a military unit, the cadet corps, which offers a wide variety of situations requiring effective leadership. Prerequisite: AFS 4114 or approval of PAS. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AFS 4140 Leadership Laboratory
A continuation of AFS 4120. A course designed and focused on developing advanced leadership skills. Students fill the top level management function within the cadet corps. The course involves the planning and controlling of military activities of the cadet corps, and the preparation and presentation of briefings and other written and oral communications. The lab also includes practice of leadership techniques aimed at motivating and instructing cadets in the lower three levels. CR/NC grading. Laboratory, Two hours per week. Corequisite: AFS 4134. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 1101 Introduction to the Army
This introductory level course is designed to give students an appreciation for the role the Army currently plays in our society. The course covers the history of the Army and the roles and relationships of the Army within our society. The course also covers some of the basic skills necessary for today's leaders to include oral presentation, time management, map reading, basic rifle marksmanship and squad tactics. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 1102 Introduction to Leadership
This course is designed to acquaint the student with the fundamental skills necessary to be a leader, both in military and civilian context. Course also covers basic military map reading skills. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 2211 Advanced Leadership I
This course focuses on both theoretical and practical aspects of leadership. Students will examine topics such as written and oral communication, effective listening, assertiveness, personality, adult development, motivation, and organizational culture and change. Prereq: AMS 1101 and 1102, or consent of instructor. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 2212 Advanced Leadership II
This course focuses principally on officership, providing an extensive examination of the unique purpose, roles, and obligations of commissioned officers. It includes a detailed investigation of the origin or our institutional values and their practical application in decision making and leadership. Prereq: AMS 1101, 1102 and 2211, or consent of the instructor. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 3014 Leadership and Management I
Course of study in development of basic skills required to function as a manager; study of leadership styles, group dynamics, communications, motivation and military instruction methods; and school of the soldier and exercise of command. Prereq: AMS 1101, 1102 graduate or undergraduate student (male or female), successful completion of basic course or basic camp, physically fit to pursue program; consent of PMS. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 3024 Advanced Tactics
Small unit tactics and communications, organization and mission of combat arms units; leadership and the exercise of command. Prereq: AMS 1101, 1102, graduate or undergraduate student (male or female), successful completion of basic course or basic camp, physically fit to pursue program; consent of PMS. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 3204 Advanced Studies in American Military History
(University of Kentucky course description) This course will furnish upper level UK ROTC Cadets, and qualified History majors or minors with the methodological tools and materials needed to gain a more detailed understanding of American Military History and to put together a major research paper. AMS/HIS 320 will emphasize basic research skills: understanding historiographical debates within a military framework, developing effective note taking, outlining techniques, picking a feasible research topic, finding useful primary sources and drawing inferences from them, examining American military campaigns and leaders in order to complete a battle analysis, and short research assignments. Prereq: Consent of instructor (Same as HIS 320.) Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 3414 Leadership and Management II
An advanced study of logistics, operations, military administrations, personnel management, military justice, world change and military implications, service orientation and leadership training. Prereq: AMS 3014, 3024. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 3424 Command Management
An advanced study of logistics, operations, military administration, personnel management, military justice, world change and military implications, service orientation and leadership training. Prereq: AMS 3014, 3024. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 3501 Military Science Laboratory
A hands-on practicum which exposes the student to the military skills required for advanced technical and tactical competence as an Army officer. The course affords junior and senior cadets opportunities to develop and refine their leadership style and abilities under differing constraints and environments. Laboratory, two hours per week and two weekend exercises. May be repeated to a maximum of four credits. Prereq: AMS 250, AMS 101, AMS 201 and AMS 202. Concurrent: AMS 301, 302, 341 or 342 (University of Kentucky numbering). Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

AMS 3951 Independent Study in Leadership
Advanced study in leadership. Students are under guidance and confer individually with faculty on approved topic(s). A written report or paper is expected and will be filed in the chairperson's office. May be repeated to a maximum of four credits. Prereq: Completion of AMS 3024 and approval of PMS. Course taught at the University of Kentucky.

ANTH 1024 Cultural Anthropology
Explores the similarities and differences among contemporary cultures of the world. Introduces the concepts and methods central to cultural anthropology and explores various domains of social life, such as marriage and family, political and economic systems, gender ideology, magic, and religion. Recommended for first-year and sophomore students only. III A

ANTH 1034 Human Origins
The physical origin, evolution, and prehistory of human beings and the major archaeological methods used to reconstruct the fossil record. Explores non-human primate evolution and social behavior among chimpanzees, gorillas, and monkeys. Focuses on the major debates in physical anthropology regarding the nature of human origins and evolution.

ANTH 1044 Cultural Geography
Provides an introduction to the study of spatial distributions of people on earth, including population trends, migration, land-use, urbanism, and changing global systems. This is an introductory course without prerequisites. Also listed as SOC 1054. III A

ANTH 1054 Introduction to Archaeology
Students will focus on how archaeologists make interpretations of the past using material remains. By examining the utility and limits of archaeological methods, students will learn to critically evaluate archaeological interpretations. The history of archaeology and major theoretical perspectives are examined and contemporary challenges facing archaeologists are explored. II Social Science

ANTH 1074 World Prehistory
Offers an overview of major cultural developments in the world from the spread of modern humans throughout the world to the dawn of history. Prehistoric cultures from Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Europe are discussed, using archaeological and ethnographic source material to explore such topics as the origins of agriculture, the first cities, the development of the state, trade, and warfare. III A

ANTH 2204 Anthropology: Area Study
An intensive study of a particular geographic area and the culture within that area, such as Sub- Saharan Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, or Native North, Middle, or South America. The area studied changes from term to term and will be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit as the topic changes. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024. IV W

ANTH 2314 Politics and Society of Japan
An investigation of the society and politics of Japan. Examines the historical development of the principal social institutions of Japan, including its cultural and ideological transformations. Surveys the major components of politics, economics, and government; the processes of elite and mass participation; and the important socioeconomic and political personalities, issues, and problems currently facing the country. Also listed as PS 2304. III A or IV

ANTH 2554 African Art and Culture
Provides an introduction to the rich heritage of African art and culture. Examines the varied ways that African art has shaped and been shaped by the histories and cultural values of different African peoples, both in the past and during the present day. This course will strengthen the student's ability to critically assess the role of art in Africa for the people who produce and use it, and will provide an understanding of the role of African art in the West for the people who collect, exhibit, view, and study it. Topics of study will include social, political, religious, philosophical, gendered, and aesthetic practices. Also listed as ART 2554. III A or IV

ANTH 2604 Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion
Investigates the relationship between humans and the supernatural world in various cross-cultural settings, and the ways in which religious belief systems influence sociocultural arrangements around the world. Specific areas of study include shamanism, revitalization movements, healing cults, the function of witchcraft accusations, sorcery, and divination. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024. IV

ANTH 2934 Gender, Culture, and the Social Body
Investigates sociological and anthropological perspectives on the body. Topics include an analysis of body modification and alteration, (diet, exercise, bodybuilding, scarification), and bodily decoration (tattooing, body paint, jewelry, ceremonial clothing). The course poses questions such as: How are issues of power and domination written into cultural scripts about ideal forms? How does bodily decoration convey gendered meanings and statuses? Explores how processes of development and capitalism have transformed understandings and attitudes about beauty, clothing, and the 'ideal' body. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or SOC 1004. Also listed as SOC 2934 and WS 2934. IV

ANTH 3204 Topics in Anthropology
An in-depth study of a particular topic in anthropology and the theories and methods used to study that topic. Topics may include culture change; psychological anthropology; applied anthropology; health, healing, and culture; or anthropology of Appalachia. IV

ANTH 3234 The Sacred Quest
Examines various types of quest and the roles these journeys play in the formation of identity. Topics include the structure and role of initiation rites, the functions of religious communities, and the lives of religious virtuosos such as mendicants and shamans. Also listed as REL 3234. IV

ANTH 3244 Global Feminisms
Designed to introduce students to women's issues, experiences, and activities from outside of the United States, focusing on areas generally understood to be part of the 'Third World.' Using an interdisciplinary and comparative approach, students will draw on various methods of analyzing and understanding the production of gender relations, and the webs of power within which women's lives are situated. Cultural dimensions of gender and power will also be considered. Topics studied may include colonialism, globalization, maternity and reproductive rights, violence, population and poverty, sexuality and sex work, women's activism, and grassroots cooperatives. Each time the course is taught, the focus is on three major world regions, exploring the above issues within each one. Prerequisite: WS 1004 or PHIL 2004. Also listed as WS 3244. III A or IV W

ANTH 3304 Urban Anthropology
Investigates the nature of urban life in cross-cultural settings. Topics include theories of urbanism, migration, family life, kinship, class, and ethnicity. Students will conduct small-scale urban fieldwork projects as a means of exploring various dimensions of urban culture. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024. IV W

ANTH 3314 Latin American Prehistory
Focusing on 20,000 years of human presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, from the arrival of the first people from Asia at the end of the last ice age to the arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century, this course offers an overview of major cultural developments in the region, including the origins of agriculture, village life, and the first cities. Using archaeological, historical, and ethnographic source material, the course culminates in an examination of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations, including the radical changes that accompanied the arrival of Europeans. IV

ANTH 3374 Health, Healing, & Culture
Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology concerned with health and healing systems cross-culturally. This course examines cultural conceptions of disease, illness, and healing as they vary across cultures. Topics surveyed include the role of healers in culture, biomedicine as a cultural system, mental illness, childbirth and reproduction, and non-Western medical traditions. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024. IV W

ANTH 3404 Sustainable Development
Explores the concept of sustainable development, from the beginning of the era of international development following WWII to the present. The course explores the challenges involved in creating sustainable development, from the socio-cultural issues and environmental concerns to the definition of sustainability. Case studies will help highlight these issues. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or SOC 1004. Also listed as SOC 3404. IVW

ANTH 3424 Appalachia and the Environment
From the beginning of human habitation to the present, the physical landscape of Appalachia has shaped the culture and society of Appalachian peoples. This course examines the relationship of the physical and cultural aspects of Appalachia, from Ice Age hunters to the present. Recent environmental and anti-environmental movements are discussed. Using anthropological, geographical, and sociological literature, students will develop an understanding of the complex relationship of the physical and cultural landscapes, examine the power of historical trends and legacies, and critically examine stereotypes and commonly held beliefs about the region. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or SOC 1004. Also listed as SOC 3424. IV

ANTH 3504 Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Provides analysis of the cultural conditions (both material and ideological) that shape the meanings underlying masculinity and femininity in various cultural contexts. Perspectives from Marxist and feminist theory, political economy, psychodynamic/psychological anthropology, and evolutionary psychology are utilized to understand gendered differences in cultural behavior. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024or WS 1004; and at least 1 2000 level or above anthropology course. Also listed as WS 3514. III A or IV W.

ANTH 4014 Independent Study
Individual student research and practice in selected areas of anthropology, under faculty supervision. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: ANTH 1024 or 1034 and permission of instructor.

ANTH 4204 Internship in Anthropology
Provides supervised placement of students in organizations dealing with anthropology field research, archaeology, directed culture change, or education in anthropological topics (museums, for example). The program provides an opportunity to work in some area of anthropology and to apply principles of anthropological courses. Substantive internship and organization to be chosen in consultation with internship supervisor. A total of 3 course units can be counted toward major requirements. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: ANTH 1024 or 1034, 4 course units in sociology or anthropology, and permission of instructor.

ANTH 4208 Internship in Anthropology
Provides supervised placement of students in organizations dealing with anthropology field research, archaeology, directed culture change, or education in anthropological topics (museums, for example). The program provides an opportunity to work in some area of anthropology and to apply principles of anthropological courses. Substantive internship and organization to be chosen in consultation with internship supervisor. A total of 3 course units can be counted toward major requirements. (2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: ANTH 1024 or 1034, 4 course units in sociology or anthropology, and permission of instructor.

ANTH 4212 Internship in Anthropology
Provides supervised placement of students in organizations dealing with anthropology field research, archaeology, directed culture change, or education in anthropological topics (museums, for example). The program provides an opportunity to work in some area of anthropology and to apply principles of anthropological courses. Substantive internship and organization to be chosen in consultation with internship supervisor. A total of 3 course units can be counted toward major requirements. (3 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: ANTH 1024 or 1034, 4 course units in sociology or anthropology, and permission of instructor.

ANTH 4444 Senior Seminar/Capstone
A systematic examination of significant issues at the forefront of anthropological theory or research. Emphasis on supervised student research and analysis. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: SOC 1004 and ANTH 1024, 4 units in sociology or anthropology, and advanced junior or senior status in sociology or sociology/anthropology. IV

ART 1024 Introduction to Visual Art
An investigation of the personal, social, and cultural roles of art and visual communication from both contemporary and historical perspectives. Students will explore conceptual, formal, and technical issues in the visual arts through studio projects, slide lectures, class discussions, and visits to regional exhibitions. Fulfills an art history elective in the art minor. II Fine Arts

ART 1104 Two-Dimensional Design
Students explore the principles of color and design as they apply primarily to two-dimensional issues. Elemental concerns focus specifically on line, shape, value, texture, color, and pictorial composition as they relate to environmental, product, and graphic design. Introduces a basic studio vocabulary as the student explores a variety of concepts, techniques, materials, and subject matter on a problem-solving basis. II Fine Arts

ART 1424 Drawing I
An introductory studio investigation of historical, conceptual, and technical issues in drawing, with an emphasis on perceptual and observational skills. Students will explore a broad range of materials and subject matter in the development of a personal and expressive voice. II Fine Arts

ART 2104 Painting I
A studio exploration of the spatial properties of color through use of acrylic and oil paint. Students work from a variety of subjects as they investigate technical and conceptual issues from both historical and contemporary perspectives. Readings, discussions on theory, and visits to local galleries will complement studio activities. Prerequisite: Any 1000 level Fine Arts course. (Studio Art majors must take ART 1424). IV

ART 2294 Special Topics in Art
The study of an area of studio art not fully treated in other courses. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated as long as the topic is different. IV

ART 2304 Sculpture I
An exploration of three-dimensional design, using subtractive and additive sculptural methods, with emphasis both on development of technique and on conceptual awareness. Prerequisite: any 1000 level Fine Arts course. Studio Art majors must take ART 1424. IV

ART 2364 Photography I
An investigation of conceptual and technical issues in black-and-white photography from both historical and contemporary perspectives. Explores all areas of camera and darkroom technique, including anatomy of the camera, developing film, printing positives, finishing and mounting,and experimental techniques. Research on historical issues expected, along with presentation of a final portfolio. Prerequisite: any 1000 level Fine Arts course. Studio Art majors must take ART 1424. IV

ART 2424 Drawing II
A continued exploration of techniques and concepts introduced in ART 1424, with an emphasis on anatomy and the human figure. Students will also be introduced to basic surface and relief printmaking processes, along with more experimental methods for image construction. Prerequisite: ART 1424. IV

ART 2504 Ceramics I
Introduction to basic handbuilding, throwing, glazing, and firing techniques. Emphasis on individual creativity and form sensibility. Amaterials fee is required. Prerequisite: any 1000 level Fine Arts course. Studio Art majors must take ART 1424. IV

ART 2614 Digital Imaging
Personal computers and digital imaging programs are quickly replacing the traditional mediums of photography and drawing in many commercial art fields. This course introduces students to software packages designed to create digital images for both print media and Internet use. Projects are designed to reflect the various uses of digital imaging, and provide a complete range of experiences from high-resolution printed images to Web site animations. Prerequisites: a twodimensional art course (2-D Design, Drawing, or Photography) and CS 1014 or 1124. IV

ART 2744 Collage/Mixed Media Drawing
A studio investigation of conceptual and technical issues in mixed media drawing from traditional and nontraditional perspectives. A wide range of materials and subject matter will be introduced with particular attention to material and image integration. Students will work with found, manipulated, and constructed imagery in exploring composition as it promotes a personal and contemporary expression. Prerequisite: ART 1104, ART 1424, or permission of instructor. IV

ART 3364 Photography II
A continuation of techniques and concepts introduced in ART 2364. Includes exploration of new and experimental photographic techniques and increased emphasis on craft and aesthetic considerations. Prerequisite: ART 2364. IV

ART 3424 Drawing III
A continuation of skills and concepts developed in ART 2424, with a focus on current nontraditional issues in drawing the human figure. Emphasis will be on theory and application. Prerequisite: ART 2424. IV

ART 3674 Painting II
A focused investigation of skills and ideas developed in ART 2104, with emphasis on concept and subject continuity with respect to modes of personal expression. Prerequisite: ART 2104. IV

ART 3774 Sculpture II
Further exploration of three-dimensional design in a wider variety of processes, with emphasis on application of these processes to specific problems. Prerequisite: ART 2304. IV

ART 3874 Ceramics II
A continuation of ART 2504, with increased emphasis on aesthetic considerations as well as the functional uses of clay. Includes introduction to glaze calculation and supervised kiln firings. A materials fee will be required. Prerequisite: ART 2504. IV

ART 4204 Internship in Art
A practical, hands-on, faculty supervised field placement with a community arts institution (profit or nonprofit) tailored to meet students' professional/career interests. Possible areas of study include commercial/graphic art, photography, arts management, and interior design. Only one unit of internship credit may be used to fulfill major pattern elective requirements. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading.

ART 4208 Internship in Art
A practical, hands-on, faculty supervised field placement with a community arts institution (profit or nonprofit) tailored to meet students' professional/career interests. Possible areas of study include commercial/graphic art, photography, arts management, and interior design. Only one unit of internship credit may be used to fulfill major pattern elective requirements. (2 course units.) CR/NC grading.

ART 4364 Photography III
A continuation of ART 3364, with an increased emphasis on creating finished artworks and building professional level exhibitions of this work. Students create proposals for each of their projects, and are expected to integrate knowledge from other Transylvania courses. Prerequisite: ART 3364. IV

ART 4404 Special Topics in Studio Art
Permits individual student activity in a selected and approved area of studio art. May be used to do further work in a studio art area in which the student has completed the normal course sequence, or to do work in an area not treated in other studio courses offered during that term. May be repeated once for a total of 2 credits. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

ART 4444 Senior Seminar
Students will develop a professional portfolio, resume, and related self-promotion material, explore career and graduate school opportunities and applications, and meet with professionals from a variety of visual disciplines. Concurrently, they will initiate and largely complete a significant studio project and accompanying reserach paper in close consultation with all members of the art faculty. CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Senior Standing.

ART 4674 Painting III
A continuation of ART 3674, with emphasis on developing an understanding of contemporary issues in painting. Students are encouraged to pursue self-initiated investigations. Prerequisite: ART 3674. IV

ART 4684 Painting IV
A continuation of ART 4674. Prerequisite: ART 4674. IV

ART 4774 Sculpture III
Offers students an opportunity to approach some degree of maturity with the medium, including exploration and application of creative theory. Prerequisite: ART 3774. IV

ART 4784 Sculpture IV
A continuation of ART 4774. Prerequisite: ART 4774. IV

ART 4874 Ceramics III
Emphasis on use of clay, glazing, and firing techniques. Includes glaze calculation and supervised kiln firings. Experimentation and individuality are expected. A materials fee will be required. Prerequisite: ART 3874. IV

ART 4884 Ceramics IV
Aesthetic considerations strongly emphasized. Continued use of clay, glaze, and firing techniques. Work toward exhibition. Amaterials fee will be required. Prerequisite: ART 4874. IV

ARTH 1114 Art History: Ancient to Gothic
Asurvey of major works and periods in Western art from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages. This course emphasizes the principles and vocabulary of visual expression and the relationship between art and its historical context. Special attention is given to three-dimensional works151architecture and sculpture151in the ancient world (Egypt, Greece, and Rome) and in the Christian West (Byzantium and Europe). This course also introduces a selection of non-Western art and architecture. III B

ARTH 1124 Art History: Renaissance to Modern
Asurvey of major artists and movements in Western art from the early Renaissance to the present. As with Art History I, this course introduces the general student to the principles and vocabulary of visual expression. With emphasis on painting, sculpture, and architecture, class discussions center on some of the economic, political, and social forces that shaped great works by artists from Giotto and Michelangelo to Picasso and Nevelson. III B

ARTH 1604 Introduction to Asian Art
A survey of visual traditions of Asia with an emphasis on the cultures of India, China, and Japan. Through examining major artistic trends of these three traditions, this course will introduce students to the distinctive styles, forms, and aesthetics of each region. Aesthetic issues will be studied within their appropriate religious and cultural contexts. Special attention will be given to the mutual influences and transmissions of culture that shape the works of art. III A

ARTH 2144 Art 1850 to the Present
An investigation of art and visual culture from its modernist beginnings at the end of the nineteenth century to its multiple expressions today. Class discussions will center on modern and postmodern works and on the historical, economic, and social forces that shaped them. Among the topics considered: revolutions, art war, new technologies, the market, popular images, and critical theories. Prerequisite: Completion of the Area II distribution requirement in fine arts. IVW

ARTH 2154 History of Architecture: Classic to Contemporary
A survey of the western tradition in architecture and city design from the 6th century BCE to the present. For the most part, this is a 'cities' course that centers on buildings and their urban environments. It will investigate some of the ways that buildings and urban centers are shaped by political, social, economic, and intellectual forces and, in turn, some ways that they reveal the culture of time and place. III B or IV.

ARTH 2294 Special Topics in Art History
Study of an area not covered in other art history courses. Courses will include Western and/or nonwestern emphases, interdisciplinary study, and May term travel. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for different topics. IV

ARTH 2554 African Art and Culture
Provides an introduction to the rich heritage of African art and culture. Examines the varied ways that African art has shaped and been shaped by the histories and cultural values of different African peoples, both in the past and during the present day. This course will strengthen the student's ability to critically assess the role of art in Africa for the people who produce and use it, and will provide an understanding of the role of African art in the West for the people who collect, exhibit, view, and study it. Topics of study will include social, political, religious, philosophical, gendered, and aesthetic practices. Also listed as ANTH 2554. III A or IV

ARTH 2604 Ideas in Non-Western Art
This course will consider how philosophic and religious ideas have been incorporated into the art of various non-Western cultures. Focus areas include: Japan, China, India, the Middle East, Native North America, Native Africa, and New Guinea. Attention will also be given to comparison of non-Western with Western art, and examination of intercultural influences. Satisfies an elective or art history course in the art major or minor. III A or IV

ARTH 2624 Arts of China
A survey of major trends in the arts of China from the Neolithic period to the early Modern era, with focus on important monuments and objects within cultural contexts. Aesthetic issues will be related to contemporaneous developments in philosophy, religion, government, society, and culture. Lectures, readings, and discussions will help students acquire some understanding of technological and stylistic developments as well as aesthetic, theoretical, and cultural issues. III A or IV

ARTH 2644 Arts of Japan
A survey of major trends in the arts of Japan from the prehistoric time to the nineteenth century. The course examines important monuments and objects within broader contexts of Japanese history and culture. Monuments associated with Shinto and Buddhist beliefs will be studied as well as works created in response to more secular interests. Special attention will be given to the relationship between Japanese art and that of continental Asia. III A or IV.

ARTH 3114 Special Topics in Art History
An intensive study of a period or topic in art history. Topics change and are announced in advance. Most 'special topics' concentrate on issues of twentieth-century art--topics include the beginnings of modern (artists and issues from 1890 to 1914) and issues in art, 1960-1990. Seminar format. May be repeated for credit provided that the period or topic is different. Prerequisite: ART 1114, 1124, 2144, or permission of instructor. May be used to satisfy a distribution requirement in non-Western civilization when topic is appropriate. IV

ARTH 3124 Women in Art
A study of major issues about women and art from the Renaissance to the present. Discussion will center on the nature of images made by women and on the social, political, and economic forces that shape women's work. Special emphasis will be placed on women as patrons, collectors, and models. Seminar format with extensive readings and research paper. Also listed as WS 3134. Prerequisites: Any 1000-level art course, Art 2144, or permission of the instructor. IV W

ARTH 3154 Architecture 1850 to Present
A critical study of buildings and their urban environments beginning with Europe and the U.S. in the second half of the nineteenth century and ending with a selection of global productions today. Emphasizes the social, economic, and political forces that have shaped architecture and cities and investigates some of the theories that underlay their form and meaning. Topics include: the architect as philosopher-builder, critical reception of buildings and city design, new technologies and architectural form, and issues of modern vs. postmodern. Prerequisite: ART 1124, 2144, or 2154. IV

ARTH 3164 Art 1970 to the Present
Examines some of the themes and ideas taken up by artists since 1970. Discussion will focus not only on single works but also on social, economic, and political forces that influence both artist and viewer. Seminar format with extensive readings and research paper. IVW

ARTH 3624 Buddhist Art of Asia
Focusing on the visual arts of India, China, and Japan, this course is a study of the major Buddhist traditions in Asia. Particular attention will be given to Buddhist iconography and the role of the visual arts in Buddhist religious practice and society. Students will also explore the exchanges and influences exerted by Buddhism throughout Asia and examine the distinctive religious expressions within each region. Prerequisite: ARTH 1604, 2624, or 2644, or permission of instructor. IV

ARTH 3644 Modern Chinese Art
Explores the major trends in the arts of China from the late Qing (mid-19th century) to the Cultural Revolution period (1966-1976). Lectures and class discussions will examine art works in different media and center on the ways in which Chinese artists have defined modernity and tradition against the complex background of China's history. Special attention will be given to the political factors behind the making of works of art, as well as cross-cultural communication in twentieth-century China. Prerequisite: ARTH 1604, or 2624, or permission of instructor. IV

ARTH 4204 Internship in Art History
Supervised placements in organizations that provide professional opportunities and experience. These include museums, establishments concerned with arts administration, architectural firms, and city planning offices. Area of placement and course format decided in consultation with appropriate faculty. Prerequisite: declared art history major; 4 art history courses; junior or senior standing. CR/NC grading. One unit course.

ARTH 4208 Internship in Art History
Supervised placements in organizations that provide professional opportunities and experience. These include museums, establishments concerned with arts administration, architectural firms, and city planning offices. Area of placement and course format decided in consultation with appropriate faculty. Prerequisite: declared art history major; 4 art history courses; junior or senior standing. CR/NC grading. Two unit course.

ARTH 4444 Capstone Seminar in Art History
Thorough study of a single period in art history with an emphasis on methodology. This course explores a variety of critical/theoretical issues in the field and culminates in a major research paper. Prerequisite: two of the following: ARTH 3124, 3154, 3164, 3624, 3644, or permission of instructor. IV

BA 1044 Introduction to Business Administration
A study of the functional areas of business including the environmental setting, organizational structure, finance, management, and marketing. Focus on acquiring understanding of the language and entire range of activities known as business. Open to first and second year students only.

BA 2034 Personal Finance
The study of personal finance concepts and principles in setting financial goals, budgeting and cash-flow management, using credit, planning major expenditures, protecting income and assets, making investments, and estate planning.

BA 3014 Marketing Strategies
Examines the marketing process with emphasis on pricing, promotion, placement, and product/service development through the development of a strategic marketing plan. Case analysis and a group project expand on course content and stress managing the marketing process through strategy development. Prerequisites: ACCT 2014 and ECON 2024.

BA 3024 Management and Organizational Behavior
An analysis of the interplay between traditional management functions and the attitudes and behaviors of individuals in organizations. Develops the concepts central to management including organization, planning, decision-making, leadership, control, and ethics as well as such critical issues in the management of individuals as personality, motivation, communication, and organizational change. Prerequisites: ACCT 2014 and ECON 2024.

BA 3084 Legal Environment of Business
Examines legal, ethical, and regulatory issues in business organizations. Focus is on the American legal system including interaction of government, business, and society, business contracts, and sales. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing or permission of the instructor.

BA 3134 Financial Management
Study of valuation procedures for real and financial assets, including risk/return tradeoffs and portfolio effects. Business financial policies derived from valuation theory are applied to capital budgeting, capital structure, and working capital management decisions. Prerequisites: ACCT 2134 and ECON 2104.

BA 3154 Investment Analysis
Asurvey of investment alternatives and sources of information; a comparison of fundamental and technical evaluation methods; and the analysis, emphasizing risk/return tradeoff considerations, of portfolio and special situation investment management strategies. Prerequisites: ACCT 2134 and ECON 2024.

BA 3174 Consumer Behavior
This course gives students a fundamental understanding of consumer decision-making and its relationship to marketing management. It covers basic concepts and the framework for integrating knowledge of consumer behavior into management decisions. Prerequisite: BA 3014.

BA 3184 Human Resource Management
Designed to provide a foundation for the theory, principles, and practice of human resource management through analysis of job requirements, selection techniques, testing programs, wage and salary administration, financial incentive systems, and contemporary legal aspects. Prerequisite: BA 3024.

BA 3212 Special Topics in Business
Study of a problem area in business not analyzed in other courses. Topic will change and be announced in advance. (1/2 course unit.) Course may be repeated for credit provided different topics are taken. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

BA 3214 Special Topics in Business
Study of a problem area in business not analyzed in other courses. Topic will change and be announced in advance. (1 course unit.) Course may be repeated for credit provided different topics are taken. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

BA 3224 Entrepreneurship
Explores the nature and dynamics of the entrepreneurial process through readings, case studies, class discussions, and student projects. Topics of discussion include idea generation, capital acquisition, market planning, growth and expansion, and operations management. Special attention is directed towards characteristics and behaviors required for successful entrepreneurial activity. Prerequisites: BA 3014 and 3024, and ACCT 2134.

BA 3234 Manager and Employee Communication
Addresses communication skills needed to fully develop people once they have been hired and trained. The areas of human learning, human satisfaction, and supervisory actions and opportunities needed to practice effective manager-employee communication will be covered primarily in a discussion and project format. Prerequisite: BA 3024.

BA 3244 International Business
An in-depth analysis of the complexities of doing business across national boundaries. Topics of discussion will include the multinational corporation, foreign direct investment, foreign financial markets, international marketing management, international industrial relations, and global business strategies. Prerequisites: BA 3014 and 3024.

BA 3304 Marketing Research
An in-depth introduction to the scientific method as applied to research in the area of marketing. Topical areas include question formulation design, sampling theory, measurement, data collection and analysis, and communication of findings. Practical application is emphasized, and students are required to develop and implement a focused study. Prerequisites: BA 3014 and ECON 2104.

BA 3534 Personal Selling and Sales Management
Principles and practices of personal selling and sales management including selling as a profession, preparation and the process of relationship selling, careers in selling, and managing the salesperson individually and as part of a sales force. Prerequisite: BA 3014 and 3024.

BA 3634 Promotional Strategies
Examines the underlying relationships between consumer behavior and marketing communication theories. Applies all elements of promotion mix (advertising, personal selling, publicity, and sales promotion) to marketing communication function. Integrates promotion strategy with overall marketing program. Prerequisite: BA 3014.

BA 3884 Bank Management
Techniques for managing bank funds to achieve profitability, liquidity, and solvency. Features asset and liability management, liquidity planning, short-term investment strategies, evaluating loan requests, customer profitability analysis and loan pricing, global banking activities, and trust operations. Prerequisite: BA 3134.

BA 4044 Seminar in Banking
Juniors and seniors who have completed Bank Management interact with local bankers generally at their respective institutions. Current issues and applications of banking principles are discussed with bank officers ranging from specialized personnel to the chief executive officer of the organization. Prerequisite: BA 3884.

BA 4084 Business Policy and Strategic Management
An integrating experience to develop an ability to see the enterprise as a system of interdependent functional business disciplines. Using the case-method approach, computer simulations, and current business activities, the course concentrates on the determination and implementation of business strategy. Prerequisites: Senior standing and BA 3134.

BA 4204 Internship
Study of management and economics in operation. Participants interact with management in committee meetings, work with research personnel, and become acquainted generally with a particular business, government office, or research center while doing supervised research on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor of the course and the agency. (1 unit.) May be repeated once for credit. CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

BA 4208 Internship
Study of management and economics in operation. Participants interact with management in committee meetings, work with research personnel, and become acquainted generally with a particular business, government office, or research center while doing supervised research on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor of the course and the agency. (2 course units.) May be repeated once for credit. CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

BIO 1044 Biological Interactions
A study of general ecological and evolutionary principles, including the origins, diversity, and interrelations of living things and their environment. Lecture and laboratory. II Natural Science

BIO 1164 Biology and Human Concerns
A study of general biological principles stressing a human perspective. This course will relate the knowledge of biology to pressing social, environmental, medical, and political issues of our time. The course is designed for nonmajors and will not count toward a major course requirement in the biology pattern. II Natural Science

BIO 2014 Anatomy and Physiology I
An introductory consideration of the structure and function of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and cardiovascular systems with particular reference to the human. This course is designed for exercise science majors and students considering an allied health career. It will not count toward the major course requirement of the biology pattern. Lecture and laboratory. Also listed as Physical Education 2094. Prerequisite: BIO 1044 or 1164. IV

BIO 2024 Genetics
A study of the principles of biological inheritance: the physical basis and patterns of inheritance, cytogenetics, physiological and molecular genetics, and population genetics, as illustrated in plants, animals, and man. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 1044. IV

BIO 2064 Field Biology
Field study of the distribution, classification, and ecology of plants and animals. Student projects of field-oriented subjects required. Lecture, laboratory, and field trips. Prerequisite: BIO 1044. IV

BIO 2104 Anatomy and Physiology II
An introductory consideration of the structure and function of the nervous, endocrine, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems with particular reference to the human. This course is designed for exercise science majors and other students interested in an allied health career. The course will not count toward the major course requirements of the biology pattern. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 1044 or 1164. IV

BIO 2144 Tropical Ecology
A study of why the tropics experience a unique climate, how this creates a variety of unique habitats such as rain forests, cloud forests, savannas, and coral reefs, and the structure and dynamics of these habitats. The class also investigates a variety of other topics including structure of tropical soils, nutrient cycling, tropical forest dynamics, tropical species diversity, and conservation. Lecture and travel. Prerequisite: BIO 1044. IV

BIO 2214 Vertebrate Zoology
Examines the diversity of vertebrate animals, including their anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavior. Investigation of the evolution of each vertebrate group and discussion of the major adaptations associated with the phylogenetic diversification of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Prerequisite: BIO 1044. IV

BIO 2304 Cell and Molecular Biology
A study of the cellular and molecular basis of life including the major types of biomolecules and their synthesis, the cell cycle, energy conservation process, cell membrane function, and organelle function. Prerequisites: BIO 1044 and CHEM 1055. IV

BIO 2424 Special Topics in Biology
Offers special topics designed to address current issues in biology. Students are required to read original papers and articles on reserve and to discuss materials in class. Topics with prerequisites will vary from year to year. Prerequisite: BIO 1044. IV

BIO 3004 Selected Topics in Biology
Offers focused study which will address a specialized field in biology. Reading assignments and lectures will be based on original literature. Students will be required to make a presentation on a selected topic. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

BIO 3015 Comparative Invertebrate Zoology
Principles of morphology, taxonomy, evolution, physiology, embryology, and natural history of invertebrates. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 2024, 2304.

BIO 3016 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
The study of vertebrate anatomy from an evolutionary and functional perspective. Evolutionary changes in integument, skeleton, muscles, and the various organ systems will be investigated by comparing the anatomy of fossil and living fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Laboratory will include dissection of sharks and cats. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 2024, 2304. IV

BIO 3026 Developmental Biology
Examination of patterns and mechanisms of embryonic development in various taxa. Selected topics in organogenesis are discussed. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 2024, 2304. IV

BIO 3046 Microbiology
A study of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses and their beneficial and harmful relations to other plants and animals, including humans. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 2024, 2304. IV

BIO 3065 Animal Physiology
Astudy of the principles of function of animal organisms emphasizing homeostasis and including organ systems. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 2024, 2304. IV

BIO 3124 Field Botany
A survey of photosynthetic organisms with emphasis on those native to Kentucky. Material to be covered includes taxonomy, nomenclature, life cycles, identification of plant parts and plant species, methods of collection and documentation, and ecological associations. Lecture, laboratory, and field study. Prerequisite: BIO 1044. IV

BIO 3144 Ecology
The study of how organisms interact with their environment and how this affects their distribution and abundance. Both applied and theoretical aspects of ecology will be investigated at the individual, population, community, and ecosystem level. Lecture, laboratory, and field trips. Prerequisite: BIO 1044 and MATH 1304. IV

BIO 3164 Ornithology
Investigates the evolution, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, and conservation of birds. Field study will emphasize the development of skills for identification of North American bird species. Lecture, laboratory, field trips, and travel. Prerequisite: BIO 1044. IV

BIO 3204 Animal Behavior
Investigates the evolution of behavior in a variety of different animal species. Topics covered include behavioral genetics, learning, communication, fighting and territoriality, foraging, mating systems, parental care, altruism and kin selection, and sociality. A significant portion of the grade in this class derives from independent research projects that students individually design, conduct, analyze, and write up. Prerequisite: BIO 2024. IV

BIO 3224 Neurobiology
An introductory consideration of the structure and function of the nervous system. An emphasis will be placed on neuronal physiology and nervous system development. The course will take an experimental approach, showing how current research is affecting our understanding of nervous system function. Laboratories will demonstrate applications of simple biochemical and physical measurement techniques to the study of the nervous system. Lecture and laboratory. CR/NC grading option with permission of instructor. CR/NC grading cannot be used toward the major or minor pattern requirements. Prerequisite: BIO 2304. IV

BIO 3314 Evolution
Examines the social and scientific history of the theory of evolution from pre-Darwin ideas to the current ideas developed from molecular and developmental biology. Examines how basic elements of the evolutionary processes (e.g., mutation, drift, and selection) can create large scale evolutionary patterns (e.g., adaptations, convergence, symbiosis, and the emergence of diversity). Format: lecture/discussion. Prerequisite: BIO 1044, 2024, 2304. IV

BIO 4002 Supervised Laboratory Teaching in Biology
A practical internship on how to run a biology lab. Under close supervision of the biology instructor, the student plans, prepares, instructs, and grades a BIO 1164 laboratory section. (Other biology courses are available to qualified students.) Students must have successfully completed the course they teach. Course is open only to juniors and seniors; limited spaces are available. Required of all teaching biology majors; recommended for biology majors preparing for graduate school. (1/2 course unit.) Course may be repeated teaching a different biology lab course. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: 5 course units in biology or permission of instructor.

BIO 4034 Molecular Genetics
An advanced genetics course investigating the biochemical nature of genes and the mechanisms of gene regulation. A significant laboratory component will introduce students to modern techniques in molecular genetics. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 2024 and 2304. IV

BIO 4114 Immunology
Immunology is a study of the molecular, genetic, structural, and cellular components of the immune system. Basic principles of immunology also will be applied to allergy, autoimmunity, AIDS, transplantation, control of infectious diseases and cancer. Lab will involve independent investigations. Laboratory work will include experiments with animals, cells, and immunochemistry/serology. Prerequisite: BIO 1044, 2304, and 2024. IV

BIO 4212 Independent Study
A study of the tools and techniques of research, of the use of the library for literature review, and of planning and execution of a research project, with a written report. (1/2 course unit.) May be repeated for a total of 2 units of credit between 4212 and 4214. CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

BIO 4214 Independent Study
A study of the tools and techniques of research, of the use of the library for literature review, and of planning and execution of a research project, with a written report. (1 unit credit.) May be repeated for a total of 2 units of credit between 4212 and 4214. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

BIO 4304 Advanced Cell Biology
This advanced course is designed for senior biology students interested in pursuing questions of complex cell function. The biochemical and physiological details of cell structure and function will be explored, including an introduction to histology and cellular differentiation. Students will read primary literature in addition to a textbook and will do a series of short research projects in the laboratory. Prerequisites: CHEM 2165, BIO 2024, 2304. IV

BIO 4444 Senior Seminar in Biology
The capstone course for the biology major designed to integrate and expand the student's knowledge of biology. Utilizing a topical theme, the course will explore the realm of biological knowledge, how biology progresses, and how to critically evaluate a field of study. Topics will be explored through lecture, discussion, extensive reading of the primary literature, and a substantial writing assignment. Topic will change year to year and by instructor. Prerequisites: BIO 1044, 2024, and 2304, senior standing and biology major, or permission of instructor. IV

BIO 4904 Senior Honors in Biology
Execution of a research project with an oral and written research report. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: Senior standing, 4 course units in biology, a grade point average of at least 3.0 in biology courses, and permission of instructor.

CHEM 1004 Chemistry in Society
An introduction to the field of chemistry where the material studied will center on real-world societal problems and issues. These issues are set in their social, political, and economic contexts. II Natural Science

CHEM 1055 Principles of Chemistry I
An introduction to chemical concepts and the chemistry of the common elements emphasizing aspects of chemical bonding and energetics. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are included. Lecture and laboratory. II Natural Science

CHEM 1065 Principles of Chemistry II
A continuation of CHEM 1055. Prerequisite: CHEM 1055.

CHEM 2155 Organic Chemistry I
A systematic study of organic compounds emphasizing reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Infrared spectrophotometry is used. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 1065. IV

CHEM 2165 Organic Chemistry II
A continuation of CHEM 2155. Prerequisite: CHEM 2155. IV

CHEM 2244 Environmental Chemistry
The study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in water, soil, and air environments, as well as the influence of human activities upon these processes. Prerequisite: CHEM 1065. IV

CHEM 2294 Special Topics in Chemistry
Recent developments or current topics in any field of chemistry at the sophomore level. Reading assignments and lectures are based to some extent on original articles in the chemical literature. Some laboratory or field work may be expected. Prerequisites: CHEM 1055 or 1065 or 1004. IV

CHEM 2584 Forensic Chemistry
Chemistry in the police lab. A survey of methods and instrumentation used in the criminology laboratory, including drug analysis, alcohol content of blood, trace element analysis, etc. Includes a field trip to the state police laboratory in Frankfort. Mystery stories will be studied to observe whether methods are mentioned or used. Prerequisite: CHEM 1065. IV

CHEM 3014 Inorganic Chemistry
Based on more detailed inorganic chemistry, including structural chemistry, less familiar elements, and coordination complexes. Laboratory preparation of compounds illustrates different preparatory methods. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 1065. IV

CHEM 3084 Biochemistry
An introduction to the basic concepts of biochemistry starting with a review of the chemical compounds of biological interest. Discussion of the reactions of these compounds as well as the energetics of their biochemical reactions and the enzymes that catalyze them. This knowledge is then integrated to the carbon, nitrogen, and energy cycles of living systems. Prerequisite: CHEM 2165. IVW

CHEM 3115 Quantitative Analytical Chemistry
Representative analyses to demonstrate various chemical laboratory techniques. Topics include volumetric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric methods of quantitative analysis. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 1065. IV

CHEM 3125 Instrumental Analysis
Chemical analysis based on instrumental methods of separation, identification, and quantification. Special emphasis on infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and chromatography. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 1065. IV

CHEM 3155 Physical Chemistry I
A study of the fundamental chemical principles applicable to all subdisciplines of chemistry. These principles involve both thermodynamics and reaction dynamics. Chemical bonding is studied from a quantum mechanical foundation and is viewed with a mathematical perspective. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: CHEM 1065, CHEM 2144. IV

CHEM 3165 Physical Chemistry II
A continuation of CHEM 3155. Prerequisite: CHEM 3155. IV

CHEM 4002 Supervised Laboratory Teaching in Chemistry
Required of teaching chemistry majors. A practical internship on how to run a chemistry laboratory. Under close supervision of the main laboratory instructor, the student assists in planning, instructing, and grading a chemistry laboratory section. (1/2 coruse unit.) May be repeated (only by teaching chemistry majors) once for credit if subject is different. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: 6 course units in chemistry or permission of instructor.

CHEM 4014 Selected Topics in Chemistry
Recent developments or current topics in any field of chemistry. Reading assignments and lectures are based to some extent on original articles in the chemical literature. Students are expected to make a presentation of some topic. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

CHEM 4212 Independent Study
A study of the techniques of research, of the use of the library for literature review, and of planning and carrying out a research project, with a written report. (1/2 course unit.) May be repeated for a total of 2 units of credit between 4212 and 4214. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

CHEM 4214 Independent Study
A study of the techniques of research, of the use of the library for literature review, and of planning and carrying out a research project, with a written report. (1 course unit.) May be repeated for a total of 2 units of credit between 4212 and 4214. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

CHEM 4441 Senior Seminar in Chemistry
This course will teach students how to do research in the library on chemistry topics. The students will then choose a topic in consultation with the instructor, prepare an abstract on this topic, and present a report orally to the class. (1/4 course unit.) Prerequisite: Senior standing in chemistry.

CHEM 4604 Special Research Problems
Full-time research that is carried out during a regular term at institutions other than Transylvania. The student must submit a paper which describes the research problem and results of the work. (An oral presentation of the work may also be required.) (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Junior standing and acceptance to the other institution.

CHEM 4608 Special Research Problems
Full-time research that is carried out during a regular term at institutions other than Transylvania. The student must submit a paper which describes the research problem and results of the work. (An oral presentation of the work may also be required.) (2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Junior standing and acceptance to the other institution.

CHEM 4612 Special Research Problems
Full-time research that is carried out during a regular term at institutions other than Transylvania. The student must submit a paper which describes the research problem and results of the work. (An oral presentation of the work may also be required.) (3 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Junior standing and acceptance to the other institution.

CHEM 4616 Special Research Problems
Full-time research that is carried out during a regular term at institutions other than Transylvania. The student must submit a paper which describes the research problem and results of the work. (An oral presentation of the work may also be required.) (4 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Junior standing and acceptance to the other institution.

CHEM 4904 Senior Honors in Chemistry
Carrying out a research project with a written report. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: Senior standing, four courses in chemistry, a grade point average of at least 3.0 in chemistry, and permission of instructor.

CLA 1014 Introduction to Greek and Roman Mythology
Presents an introduction to the major figures, myths, and themes in Greek and Roman mythology. We will consider how ancient and modern writers, artists, and thinkers have used this mythology in their works. Attention also will be given to modern theories of myth and to the relation of myth to religion/cult and politics in the ancient world. II Humanities

CLA 2234 The Literature of the Greco-Roman World
A survey of ancient Greek and Latin literature in translation, which studies different genres and major themes, and examines authors in their historical contexts and in the Greco-Roman literary tradition. The course will focus on how authors use Greco-Roman mythology to explore complex issues. Some attention will be given to ancient literary criticism and to the modern reception of this literature. II Humanities or IV

CLA 2244 Women in Antiquity
An interdisciplinary study of how women are represented in the early and formative stages of the Western cultural tradition. We will examine both written and archaeological evidence for the lives of women in the Greco-Roman world and discuss concepts of gender and human sexuality in ancient culture and society. IV

CLA 2294 Special Topics
Study of aspects of the Greco-Roman world not fully treated in other classics courses. May be repeated for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. IV

CLA 3224 Augustan Rome
An in-depth and interdisciplinary study of Rome during the Augustan Age (40 BCE-14CE). Topics include literature, art, architecture, the legislation and the policies of the Augustan regime, and the cultural model this period set in western civilization. Prerequisties: CLA 2234 or permission of instructor. IV W

CLA 3234 Ancient Drama
An in-depth study of Greek and Roman dramatic literature and theatrical production. Playwrights include Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Plautus, Terence and Seneca. Prerequisite: CLA 1014 or permission of instructor. IV W

CLA 3244 The Twelve Caesars
A study of the force of the emperor's personality on the course of Roman history. With a look back at the career of Julius Caesar, the course examines the lives and policies of the Caesars from Augustus to Domitian. Study of Suetonius' Lives of the Caesars and Tacitus' Annals and Histories and discussion of the conventions of ancient biography and historiography. Prerequisite: HIST 2244. IV

CLA 3304 Religion in Ancient Greece
Surveys the religious belief, cult and ritutal of the Greeks from the Minoan period through the Hellenistic. It presumes some knowledge of ancient myth, and will draw upon archeological, iconic and narrative evidence to investigate concepts and practice in social context. Prerequistie: CLA 1014 or permission of instructor. IV

CLA 4444 Capstone Seminar
An interdisciplinary seminar focusing on an important cultural period in the Greco-Roman world and directing students in the use of different tools of classical scholarship in assessing primary evidence pertaining to key topics in contemporary research. Written project and presentation. Topics and the target period may vary. Prerequisite: advanced junior or senior major standing. IV

CS 1014 Introduction to Computers
An introduction to the inner workings of computers, their history, uses, and future. Topics include computers, past and present; personal computer systems; computers in society; computer applications; programming languages and problems; and opportunities. Students will obtain a working knowledge of word processing, databases, spreadsheets, and writing programs in Pascal or BASIC. Designed mainly for students in areas other than computer science. Credit is not allowed for this course if the student already has credit for CS 1124 or 2124.

CS 1044 Computation and Technology in Western Thought
Computation relies on algorithms. These are simply precise, step-by-step instructions for solving a problem, but they have been foundational in the development of Western science, philosophy, and culture. The history of the algorighm is presented, its impact is tracked through a 400 year period, and a study of what can and cannot be accomplished with it is presented. III B

CS 1124 Foundations of Computer Science
An introduction to the field of computer science. Computer hardware, computer software, programming languages, and present and future uses of the computer will be considered. Topics will include algorithm development and analysis, algorithm efficiency, the binary number system, circuits, gates, basics of computer architecture, assembly language programming, and an introduction to translating language programming.

CS 2044 Computer Languages
An introduction to the use of a particular computer language and to its characteristic applications. Various languages, such as FORTRAN, COBOL, C, and C++, will be treated depending on demand. The course may be repeated to include different languages. IV

CS 2124 Logic and Problem Solving
A continuation of Computer Science 1124 with emphasis on logic in problem solving, algorithm design, the syntax of translating languages, and mastery of the language C++. Prerequisite: CS 1124. IV

CS 2144 Computer Organization
Designed to give the computer science major a new view of the operation of a modern digital computer. The course focuses on the hardware implementation of computing devices. The binary number system, basic logic design, memory, control, I/O, and arithmetic units will be covered. The student will be introduced to the MIPS assembly language as a tool to explore these issues. Prerequisite: CS 2124. IV

CS 2212 Independent Study
Readings, research, and system building on an approved topic. (1/2 course unit.) May be repeated once for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

CS 2344 Discrete Structures
Basic mathematical topics used in the study of computer science will be considered. Topics will include logic; sets, sequences, and functions; mathematical induction; algorithms and basic analysis of algorithms; permutations, combinations and discrete probabilities; recurrence relations; trees; Boolean algebras; and combinatorial circuits. Prerequisites: MATH 1304 or permission of instructor. IV

CS 2444 Data Structures
Includes the study of strings, lists, graphs, trees, and files. Sorting, searching, and memory management will be analyzed for minimizations. Prerequisite: CS 2124. IV

CS 3014 Computer Graphics
An introduction to computer graphics hardware, software, and algorithms for both two- and three-dimensions. Topics include scan-line algorithms, affine tranformations, clipping, projections, lighting models, texture mapping, and surfaces. Interactive and animation techniques are studied. Prerequisite: CS 2444. IV

CS 3024 Compiler Construction
Students learn the detailed procedure necessary in compiler construction. A two-phase compiler will be written. Reverse Polish and other algebraic interpreters are included. Prerequisite: CS 2444. IV

CS 3074 Netcentric Computing
Designed to familiarize students with the modern view of an interconnected system of computers. The focus is on the underlying networks and the requirements of the operating system to support communication. Topics include hardware, software, deadlock, storage, process scheduling, TCP/IP protocol, and security. Java and C++ will be used to implement the algorithms presented in the course. Prerequisite: CS 2144, 2444. IV

CS 3114 Special Topics in Computer Science
Study of computer hardware, computer software, and the integration of hardware and software. Emphasis on current issues in computing and topics not fully treated in other computer courses. May be repeated for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: CS 2124 and permission of instructor. IV

CS 3144 Database Management Systems
Organizations are accumulating vast volumes of data, mainly due to the use of technology. This course will cover topics such as the design, maintenance, and delivery systems used in information systems, with some specific topics being data retrieval, data mining, and data modeling. Prerequisite: CS 2444 IV

CS 3164 Interface Programming
Explores the capabilities of a scripting language for interfacing with system commands, Internet applications, networking applications, and databases. Special attention is given to Internet security issues and accessing databases via a network. Prerequisite: CS 2444 IV

CS 3234 Theory of Programming Languages
There are generally considered to be four major 'families' of computer languages - proceedural, funcitonal, object-oriented, and logical. Each represents a different paradigm, which a programmer must be familiar with in order to write code in a variety of languages. This course takes a theoretical approach to teaching the similarities and differences among the four families by examining what can be computed. Regular expressions, context-free grammars, context-sensitive grammars, and Turing machines are used in this analysis. Prerequisite: CS 2444 and MATH 3074. IV

CS 3304 Numerical Analysis I
An investigation of numerical methods for computer solutions of applied problems. Topics include review of calculus, round-off errors and computer arithmetic, solutions of equations in one variable, interpolation and polynomial approximation, approximation theory, and numerical differentiation and integration. Prerequisites: MATH 1324 or permission of instructor. Also listed as MATH 3304. IV

CS 3324 Numerical Analysis II
A continuation of CS 3304 with the addition of initial value problems for ordinary differential equations, direct methods for solving linear system, iterative techniques in matrix algebra, numerical solutions of nonlinear systems of equations, boundary-value problems for ordinary differential equations, and numerical solutions to partial-differential equations. Prerequisite: CS 3304. Also listed as MATH 3324. IV

CS 3344 Computational Theory
Examines the mathematical foundations of computer science with respect to both hardware and software. Through discussion on formal languages, NP versus P, algorithmic analysis, and data structure design, students will learn how to determine what can and cannot be computed and what efficiency a particular approach offers. Both concrete and philosophical approaches and results will be considered. Prerequisite: CS 2344. IV

CS 3434 Machine Intelligence
Familiarizes the student with the growing field of artificial intelligence. The course will describe what artificial intelligence is, how it is presently being used, and its future uses. Students will learn to design artificial intelligence systems, such as game systems and production systems. Prerequisite: CS 2044 or PHIL 1024 or PSY 1004. Also listed as PHIL 2434. IV W

CS 4204 Internship
A program offering students supervised instruction in a non-classroom setting. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

CS 4208 Internship
A program offering students supervised instruction in a non-classroom setting. (2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

CS 4214 Independent Study in Computer Science
Readings, research, and computer simulations on an approved topic. May be repeated once for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

CS 4314 Senior Honors in Computer Science
A primarily independent study of a topic chosen by the student in consultation with a professor. Library and research facilities will be employed. May be taken for credit more than once. Prerequisites: Senior standing, 6 course units in computer science with at least a 3.0 grade point average, and the presentation of a satisfactory project proposal.

CS 4444 Senior Project in Computer Science
This seminar course will teach the student the methodology of managing an extensive research project, which will be chosen from their area of concentration. After an initial exploration of the topic, the student will focus on a specific problem to solve through the development of a significant computer project. Part of this development will focus on the evaluation of the final result with respect to the problem chosen. Prerequisite: senior standing in computer science. IV

DRA 1001 Theater Practicum
Guided participation, for theater productions, in performance, stage management, or crew work on sets, lights, props, costumes, or makeup. A minimum of 40 hours required. May be repeated for up to a maximum of 2 course units. (1/4 course unit each.) CR/NC grading.

DRA 1051 Beginning Ballet
Designed for students who have little or no formal training in classical ballet. The course covers ballet fundamentals, including exercises on the barre and in the center, class etiquette, terminology, and musicality. There is an additional fee for this course. (1/4 course unit.) May be repeated for credit. CR/NC grading.

DRA 1104 Introduction to Drama
A study of plays in performance through both theory and practice. The means and methods of play-making151from scripting to acting to designing to directing151are examined. The history of selected movements and styles in drama and theater is explored to develop an understanding of, and a critical appreciation for, live performance as a unique aesthetic. II Fine Arts

DRA 1214 Preparing to Act
An introductory survey of the theory and practice of acting, with emphasis on action, reaction, and interaction. Performance of scenes and monologues from realistic plays provide opportunities for training in concentration, relaxation, motivation, textual analysis, vocal development, and physical presence. II Fine Arts

DRA 1314 Technical Theatre
The study of the basic elements of technical theater, with application to selected examples of dramatic literature. Specifically considered will be fundamentals of set and property construction, lighting and sound technology, costuming and makeup, and backstage organization. Problem-solving techniques for specific play productions will be emphasized. Concurrent registration in DRA 1001 is required. II Fine Arts

DRA 2051 Intermediate Ballet
Designed for students with some classical ballet training who are interested in continuing their ballet education. The course will emphasize technique and ballet terminology. Instructor approval is required for registration. There is an additional fee for this course. (1/4 course unit.) May be repeated for credit. CR/NC grading.

DRA 2224 Building a Character
An advanced acting course, designed to develop the actor's ability in applying style, tempo, and originality toward the creation of a character on stage. Performance of scenes and monologues selected primarily from classical plays offer challenges in textual interpretation and gestural emphasis, vocal expression, and physical embodiment. Prerequisite: A full-credit fine arts course. IV

DRA 2234 Creative Dramatics
The study of improvisational theater as a means to explore dramatic structure, character attributes, themes, language, sounds, and physicalization. This course is designed to improve acting skills, enhance imagination, and encourage collaboration. Active participation essential. Public performances will occur throughout term. No prior acting experience necessary. Prerequisite: A full-credit course in fine arts. IV

DRA 2324 Theatre Design
Basic principles and practices of designing for the stage, including the scenic, lighting, and costume elements of a theatrical production. Emphasis placed on design procedures, research techniques and materials, period styles, design history, drafting and rendering skills, and application of design concepts to specific plays. Concurrent registration in DRA 1001 is required. Prerequisite: A full-credit fine arts course. IV

DRA 3051 Advanced Ballet
Designed for students who have had significant classical ballet training. The course will fine-tune existing technique, adding speed, complexity, and variations. Instructor approval is required for registration. There is an additional fee for this course. (1/4 course unit.) May be repeated for credit. CR/NC grading.

DRA 3072 Special Projects in Theater Arts
Individual projects in performance, design, technical production, or theater history designed to permit the qualified student to explore more thoroughly specific problems in a given area. (1/2 course unit.) May be repeated for credit up to a maximum of 2 course units between 3072 and 3074. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

DRA 3074 Special Projects in Theater Arts
Individual projects in performance, design, technical production, or theater history designed to permit the qualified student to explore more thoroughly specific problems in a given area. (1 course unit.) May be repeated for credit up to a maximum of 2 course units between 3072 and 3074. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

DRA 3244 Creating a Role
An advanced-level course in acting. Through selected examples, students will develop acting techniques suitable for performing various styles and genres, such as Greek tragedy, realism, high comedy, farce, Brechtian epic theater, musical theater, theater of the absurd, and acting for the camera. Resume and audition material preparation will also be stressed, as well as performance at regular intervals. Prerequisite: DRA 2224. May be repeated once for credit. IV

DRA 3314 Advanced Design
Advanced level design course with intensive study of a specific area of theatrical design, selected from one of the following areas: scenic, lighting, costume, or makeup. May be repeated for credit in different design area. Specific area offered on a rotating basis and/or upon student request and faculty availability. Prerequisites: DRA 2324 and permission of instructor. IV

DRA 3324 Shakespeare I
An intensive study of 8-10 plays drawn from the first half of Shakespeare's career. Will deal with selected histories, comedies, and tragedies up to about 1600. Prerequisites: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. Also listed as ENG 3324. IV W

DRA 3334 Shakespeare II
An intensive study of at least 10 plays from the second half of Shakespeare's career. Will deal with the problem comedies, mature tragedies, and tragicomedies. Prerequisites: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. Also listed as ENG 3334. IV W

DRA 3414 Fundamentals of Play Directing
The basic elements of directing for a proscenium theater, including play analysis for directors, techniques for actor development, and practical play production. Extensive classroom exercises for training in composition, picturization, movement, design, pacing, and casting, concluding with a public performance of a short scene. Prerequisites: DRA 1214 and DRA 1314. IV

DRA 3424 Advanced Directing
Advanced elements of directing, with emphasis on staging for various actor-audience spatial arrangements, directing in period styles and classical genres, and developing effective rehearsal techniques, production schedules, and organizational collaborations. Prerequisites: DRA 3414 and permission of instructor. IV

DRA 3514 Modern Drama and Theater
Asurvey of modern dramatic literature and patterns in theater history during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Selected plays, staging styles, acting techniques, design aspects, and theatrical theory and criticism will be explored within cultural and historical contexts. Prerequisite: A full-credit drama course. IV W

DRA 3524 Classical Drama and Theater
A survey of classical dramatic literature and patterns in theater history from the fifth-century Greek era to the nineteenth century. Selected plays, staging styles, acting techniques, design aspects, and theatrical theory and criticism will be explored within cultural and historical contexts. Prerequisite: A full-credit drama course. IV W

DRA 3534 Playwriting
A practical course in writing a one-act play. Beginning with a scenario or outline of events, through the various drafts and rewrites, and concluding with a final version which will be given a public reading, each playwright will not only experience the process of writing a producible script, but also learn the aesthetic principles guiding the making of dramatic literature. Prerequisite: Any drama course. IV

DRA 4004 Senior Seminar
Capstone course in theater for intensive and independent study (with faculty supervision) of a major area of theater, such as playwriting, acting, directing, designing, dramaturgy, or research, culminating in a public performance as appropriate to subject. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

DRA 4204 Internship in Theatre
Internship with professional profit or nonprofit theater company. Possible areas of experience include theater management (box office, marketing, fund-raising), acting, stagecraft, lighting or costume construction, and/or crews. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: DRA 1314 or 3414 or junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

DRA 4208 Internship in Theatre
Internship with professional profit or nonprofit theater company. Possible areas of experience include theater management (box office, marketing, fund-raising), acting, stagecraft, lighting or costume construction, and/or crews. (2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: DRA 1314 or 3414 or junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

ECON 1004 Introduction to Economics
Introduction to microeconomic and macroeconomic concepts and theories. Includes an overview of the microeconomic theories of consumer behavior, decision-making by the business firm, market structures and resource markets; and the macroeconomic theories of national income determination, employment, inflation, money and the banking system, and the world economy. II Social Science

ECON 2024 Principles of Microeconomics
A study of the microeconomic analysis of the individual firm and consumer, price determination, and market structures. II Social Science or IV

ECON 2034 Principles of Macroeconomics
A study of the macroeconomic analysis of the economy and its banking system, income determination and its fluctuation, and monetary and fiscal policies. II Social Science or IV

ECON 2104 Economics & Business Statistics
Applications of statistical models and techniques to analyze data with specific relevance to economic and business problems. Topics will include probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, correlation, analysis of variance, and regression. Prerequisites: MATH 1034 or MATH 1304. IV

ECON 3034 Money and Banking
A study of the economics of money, banking, financial markets, and the role of U.S. monetary policy in macroeconomic stabilization and economic growth. Topics include financial markets and institutions, central banking system, monetary theory and policy. Emphasizes the role of the Federal Reserve System and its policies in maintaining economic growth and stability. Prerequisite: ECON 2034. IV

ECON 3054 Microeconomics - Theory and Applications
Development of the microeconomic theory of decision-making by households and business firms. Special emphasis on applications of the theory of the firm to business situations. Prerequisites: ECON 2024. IV

ECON 3074 Macroeconomic Theory and Policy
Study of macroeconomic theories, monetary and fiscal policy. Analysis of the factors that determine the economy's aggregate output, employment, interest rates, and general price level. Topics include unemployment, inflation, business cycles, and economic growth. Current issues and controversies in macroeconomics, including issues in macroeconomic stabilization policies and international macroeconomics. Prerequisites: ECON 2034. IV

ECON 3114 Special Topics in Economics
The study of a school of thought, issue, policy application, or an individual not fully treated in other courses. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit provided different topics are covered. Prerequisites: ECON 2024 and 2034 or permission of instructor. IV

ECON 3134 Public Finance
Examines the economic justification for government participation in a market economy and evaluates government activities from the standpoint of economic efficiency. Topics include public goods, externalities, market failure, public choice analysis, expenditure programs, transfer programs, taxation, and regulation. Prerequisite: ECON 2024. IV

ECON 3144 International Trade and Finance
A study of theory and policy of international economic relations. Topics include international trade theory, international trade policy, and international monetary economics. Analysis of trade models, regional economic integration, the balance of payments, international capital flows, exchange rate theories, the evolution of the international financial system, open economy macroeconomic policy, and contemporary issues in the global economy. Prerequisite: ECON 2024. IV

ECON 3164 Mathematical Economics
Designed to acquaint the student with the most common mathematical tools encountered in advanced study of economics. Applications include equilibrium analysis of markets, National Income Equilibrium, and elasticity of demand and supply. Prerequisites: MATH 1144 and 2124 or permission of instructor. IV

ECON 3184 Comparative Economic Systems
A description, analysis, and evaluation of capitalism, socialism, communism, and mixed economic systems. The theories, institutions, and policies which provide direction and coordination for these systems will be examined, and case studies of particular countries will be conducted. Prerequisite: ECON 2024 or 2034 or permission of instructor. IVW

ECON 4004 Independent Study
Designed to provide advanced undergraduates with experience in independent, self-directed study in which they initiate, plan, and direct their own research activities under the supervision and guidance of a member of the economics program faculty. A proposal for study must be submitted before the beginning of the term during which it is to take place, and it must be approved by both the supervising faculty member and the economics program director. Prerequisites: ECON 2024, 2034, and 5 units in economics or a related discipline.

ECON 4044 History of Economic Thought
A study of the origins of modern economic thought. Explores the historical development of economic theories from ancient to modern times, with emphasis on how these theories evolved into our present understanding of economics. Critical analysis of the evolution of key economic ideas by examining main contributions of the most outstanding economists in each period of economic thought. Topics include classical, Marxian, neoclassical, institutional, and Keynesian economics. Prerequisites: ECON 2024, 2034. III B or IVW

ECON 4204 Internship
A program offering students supervised practical experience in applied economics. Each internship is jointly supervised by an economics faculty member and a professional in a business or government organization. Research on a topic chosen in consultation with the faculty member will be required. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

ECON 4208 Internship
A program offering students supervised practical experience in applied economics. Each internship is jointly supervised by an economics faculty member and a professional in a business or government organization. Research on a topic chosen in consultation with the faculty member will be required. (2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing and permission of instructor.

ECON 4884 Seminar in Economics
The capstone course for economics majors. Research and analysis of major issues in the field of economics. This seminar will address questions of philosophical approach, scientific methodology, and interaction with other disciplines. Prerequisites: ECON 3054 or permission of instructor. IVW

EDU 2004 Observing the Learner
Provides a foundation in educational psychology and introduces students to the research base related to student learning. Major topics include cognitive, social, and emotional development from early childhood to adolescence, cognitive and behavioral theories of learning and motivation, diversity among learners, learners with exceptionalities, and assessment of student learning. Requires 10 field hours and lab. Prerequisite: PSY 1004 or permission of instructor.

EDU 2014 Schooling in American Culture: History, Philosophies, Trends, and Practices
Focuses on the history and purposes of the development of American schooling. The various educational philosophies that have informed schooling practices in the past and present are examined. Issues related to schooling in a complex and culturally diverse society form an integral part of the course. Nine hours of classroom observation are required. Prerequisite: FLA 1104. IV W

EDU 2024 Children's Literature
Students will become familiar with literature appropriate for children from preschool through middle school. They will study authors and illustrators of high quality literature and their works, various literary genres, and strategies for introducing literature to children and for integrating it into the curriculum. Students will complete individual or group projects related to literary strategies. Prerequisite: PSY 1004 or EDU 2004 or permission of instructor.

EDU 2084 Literature for Young Adults
For many young people, the love of reading tends to dissipate after the elementary years. By exploring the rather explosive genre of adolescent literature and its body of research and scholarship, students can discover new pleasures in reading, and along the way, insights into life's most perplexing issues for young people. Students will read numerous novels written for a young adult audience, and they will respond to them in writing and through discussion. Common themes of these novels include alienation, AIDS, homophobia, racism, dysfunctional families, sexual abuse, body image, teenage pregnancy, violence, and suicide. In addition, topics such as censorship, bibliotherapy, and reader response theory will be explored.

EDU 2094 Standards Based Instruction
There are five strands to this course: standards and the standards-driven reform movements, assessment, educational technology, differentiated instruction, and culturally-responsive teaching. Students will become familiar with the major issues in each of these broad areas and will learn to evaluate them critically. Students will also demonstrate at least an acceptable proficiency with technological applications commonly used in schools.

EDU 2104 Mathematics of Primary School
Focuses on the content of mathematics appropriate to teaching in primary grades. Based on National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards, the course provides an in-depth exploration of mathematics content and requires that students examine their own reasoning processes as they engage in the study of math. Topics include (but are not limited to) principles for school mathematics, numeration systems, whole number operations, number theory, integers, rational numbers as fractions, decimals, percents, geometry, measurement, statistics, and probability. Prerequisite: MATH 1034.

EDU 2164 Designing Constructivist-Based Learning Climates
Designed to familiarize teacher education students with current findings on teaching/learning processes so that they can create classroom environments that enable learners to construct meaning from their own experiences. Students will also learn to prepare learning experiences for exceptional learners. Requires 15 field hours and lab. Prerequisite: EDU 2004 or permission of instructor.

EDU 2204 Enculturation in Non-Western Societies
This course studies how children become capable adult members of their societies. Readings will include ethnographic studies, mythology, and folklore. Topics include models and theories of enculturation, family types, kinship systems, initiation rituals, rites of passage, child-rearing practices, personality and culture, and models of cultural transmissions. This is an elective course. Prerequisite: sophomore standing. III A

EDU 2294 Special Topics in Education
The study of a topic or area of inquiry not treated fully in other courses. Topics may be historical, theoretical, or practice-oriented. Some travel courses may be included. Topics change. May be repeated for credit if topic is different. Standard or CR/NC grading.

EDU 2314 Gender and Children's Literature
Acquaints the student with issues related to the construction of gender in literature for children and young adults. The focus may change from term to term, so that gender issues in specific genres can be explored in-depth. Students will complete group projects and reflections on films and readings. Prerequisite: EDU 2004, EDU 2024 or WS 1004 or permission of instructor. Also listed as WS 2314. IV

EDU 2414 The Immigrant Child
Examines issues related to immigrant children who represent linguistic and cultural diversity within American schools. Students engage in a focused study of immigrant populations in order to better understand the experience of immigrant children who often must straddle two conflicting worlds as they make their way through American public education. This course is an education elective. Field work in schools involving children from immigrant populations is a requirement. Prerequisite: EDU 2004. IV

EDU 3034 Literacy in Written and Spoken Languages for Learners in Primary Schools
Familiarizes teacher education students with the cognitive and linguistic foundations of literacy development with an emphasis on the primary school child. Students will become acquainted with various programs of reading and language arts instruction, but the balanced literacy approach will be emphasized. Students will construct integrated learning experiences that foster language development and promote increased skill in reading, writing, and speaking. They will learn how to integrate literacy activities into specific subject areas such as mathematics, social studies, science, and art. Study of children's literary texts, both fiction and nonfiction, will be emphasized. Requires 10 field hours and lab. Prerequisite: Admission to Education Program or permission of program director.

EDU 3054 Instruction Strategies and Content Area Literacy for Learners in Middle and Secondary Schools
Familiarizes the teacher education student with the cognitive and linguistic foundations of literacy development with an emphasis on language development of the middle and secondary school student. Various programs of reading and language arts instruction are viewed, but the whole language method is emphasized. In addition, the course emphasizes instructional methods which support learning in middle and/or secondary school environments. The teacher education student will construct integrated learning experiences which foster language development and promote increased communication skill in reading, writing, and speaking. Students learn about integrating literacy activities with content area learning in specific subject areas such as mathematics, history, biology, English, foreign language, and other subject areas of middle and secondary school environments. Study of texts, both fiction and non-fiction, written for adolescents and/or young adults is emphasized. Requires 8 field hours and lab. Prerequisite: Admission to Education Program or permission of instructor.

EDU 3074 Interactive, Integrative Learning Climates
Students will learn how to prepare and assess interactive learning experiences that integrate various subject concepts and processes appropriate for diverse learning levels. Attention will be given to selecting, integrating, and translating knowledge and methodology from the social sciences, music, art, and literature into activities that are appropriate for learners, including those with exceptionalities. Students will also learn to be sensitive to gender and ethnic issues. Professors from other disciplines collaborate in teaching this course. Requires 8 field hours and lab. Prerequisite: Admission to Education Program or permission of program director.

EDU 3084 Inquiry-Based Learning Climates
Focuses on teaching science in the elementary classroom with an emphasis on both science content (science topics appropriate for elementary learners recommended by state and national standards) and on pedagogy. Major topics include: children as scientists, constructivism in science education, the role of discourse in science teaching, science processes, science for diverse populations, technology, and assessment of student learning. A companion component of the course focuses on the integration of physical movement into classroom learning activities. Professors from other disciplines collaborate in teaching this course. Requires 10 field hours and lab. Prerequisite: Admission to Education Program or permission of program director.

EDU 3104 Mathematical Pedagogy
Focuses on the pedagogy appropriate for mathematics teaching for primary through middle grades. Students explore the research and theory relevant to appropriate teaching practices for mathematics. Students also examine the process and content standards which are outlined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Course topics include but may not be limited to: children's mathematical reasoning, problem-solving, teaching with manipulative math materials, embracing diversity in mathematics teaching, technology, and the assessment of student learning. Requires 10 field hours and lab. Prerequisite: EDU 2104.

EDU 3124 Young Adolescents: Preparing to Teach in the Middle Level
Prepares prospective teachers to develop a comprehensive understanding of the development of young adolescents. Attention will focus on the physical, social, emotional, intellectual, and moral characteristics and risk behaviors of young adolescents as expressed in both social and school contexts. This understanding becomes part of a rationale for and the function of middle-level philosophy. Prospective teachers will develop an understanding of their roles as middle-level teachers, coaches, mentors, sponsors, and guides who understand and can facilitate healthy growth and development of young adolescents. They will also develop an understanding of the design of appropriate middle-school learning environments including flexible grouping and scheduling, teacher-based guidance programs, electives, exploratory experiences, clubs, community service, and work with families. Requires 10 field hours. Prerequisite: Admission to Education Program or permission of instructor.

EDU 3134 Creating Middle Level Learning Experiences
Focuses on preparing prospective teachers to create interactive middle level learning experiences that are developmentally and culturally responsive. Prospective teachers will develop instruction that incorporates a recognition of individual learning differences by utilizing multiple approaches to thinking and learning. Requires 10 field hours. Prerequisite: admission to Education Program or permission of instructor.

EDU 3244 Practicum in Learning Experiences
Designed for students to gain actual classroom experience by planning, organizing, developing, delivering, and assessing instruction in the grade level(s) of their certification. When possible, teaching segments will be videotaped, and students will be evaluated by cooperating classroom teachers and the college supervisor. Students will spend 3 weeks of full-day teaching in the classroom with on-campus seminars before, during, and after the 3 week experience. Students should enroll in this course during May term of their junior year. CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: admission to Education Program and junior standing.

EDU 3414 Race, Ethnicity, Social Class in American Education
Examines American education within the broader scope of race, ethnicity, and social class. Success in American society is influenced by racial, ethnic, and/or social class status. Students will examine how such status differences manifest themselves within American public education; an institution purported to provide equal opportunity regardless of race, ethnicity, and/or social class. Other issues addressed are identity development of culturally diverse children, the impact of poverty on education, school funding, tracking, culturally relevant teaching, and how standard school practices influence students from historically underrepresented populations. Prerequisite: Completion of Area II Social Science and EDU 2014. IV W

EDU 3424 Women in Education
Examines the impact of women on philosophical foundations in the field of education and the subtle forms of sexism that undermine the education of girls and young women in current educational contexts. Students will examine work of historical and contemporary women philosophers to understand their unique contributions to the field of education. Students will also examine developmental needs of girls and current research on gender inequities within schools. Prerequisite: Completion of Area II Social Science and EDU 2014. Also listed as WS 3424. IV W

EDU 4012 Independent Study
Intensive study, through research and/or internship, of an educational issue or of special educational techniques and programs. Prerequisite: Senior Standing.

EDU 4014 Independent Study
Intensive study, through research and/or internship, of an educational issue or of special educational techniques and programs. Prerequisite: Senior standing. 1/2 or 1 unit.

EDU 4114 Supervised Teaching in High School
Open to seniors who are meeting requirements for a teacher's certificate in secondary education. Includes seminar. (4 course units.) Prerequisites: Permission of instructor, recommendation of major department, admission to Teacher Education Program, 2.75 grade point average in major(s) and minor(s), 2.75 grade point average in professional education courses, an overall grade point average of 2.75, and approval of Teacher Education Advisory Board.

EDU 4214 Supervised Teaching in Elementary School
Open to seniors who are meeting requirements for a teacher's certificate in grades P-5. Includes seminar. (4 course units.) Prerequisites: Permission of instructor, departmental recommendation, admission to Teacher Education Program, 2.75 grade point average in an area of emphasis (fine arts and humanities for students using core requirements for completion of an approved area of emphasis), 2.75 grade point average in professional education courses, an overall grade point average of 2.75, and approval of Teacher Education Advisory Board.

EDU 4314 Supervised Teaching: Twelve Grades
Open to seniors who are meeting requirements for teacher certification for 12 grades in art, music, or physical education. Includes seminar. (4 course units.) Prerequisites: Permission of instructor, recommendation of major department, admission to Teacher Education Program, 2.75 grade point average in major(s) and minor(s), 2.75 grade point average in professional education courses, an overall grade point average of 2.75, and approval of Teacher Education Advisory Board.

EDU 4414 Supervised Teaching: Middle Grades 5-9
Open to seniors who are meeting requirements for teacher certification for middle grades 5-9. Includes seminar. (4 course units.) Prerequisites: Permission of instructor, departmental recommendation, admission to the Teacher Education Program, 2.75 grade point average in both areas of emphasis, 2.75 grade point average in professional education courses, an overall grade point average of 2.75, and approval of Teacher Education Advisory Board.

EDU 4514 Senior Seminar
Designed as a senior capstone, this course will enable students to reflect upon pedagogical problems, particularly as they have been evidenced in student teaching; refine personal educational philosophies; complete a research project; and complete a professional portfolio to present at job interviews and to graduate admission committees. Prerequisite: completion of student teaching. (For December graduates, the course can be taken the May term prior to student teaching).

ENG 1074 Perspectives on Literature
An introductory course in literature designed to guide students critical thinking about literary works of various kinds, prose, fiction, poetry, and drama. Students will be given practice in discerning the distinctive features of individual texts, while developing their sense of literature's role in cultural life. Limited to first-year students and sophomores or by permission of instructor. II Humanities

ENG 1134 Introduction to Poetry
An introduction to the study of poetry as a verbal art. Students will focus intensely on language and the ways in which poems develop meaning through a complex patterning of linguistic features. Students will also be guided in thinking of poetry's value in cultural life. Not a creative writing course. Limited to first-year students and sophomores or by permission of instructor. II Humanities

ENG 1144 Introduction to Fiction
An introductory course in prose fiction that focuses on the short story as a form, but may also include a novel or two in its syllabus. Students will practice discerning the distinctive features of individual texts, while developing their sense of narrative fiction's contributions to cultural life. Limited to first-year students and sophomores or by permission of instructor. II Humanities

ENG 1194 Introduction to Film
A study of film as a major contemporary art form. Topics include film technique and aesthetics, the history of motion pictures, and genres. At least one film viewing each week. II Humanities

ENG 2004 Studies in Fiction
A study of short fiction and novel-length works by selected writers primarily from the English-speaking world. Examines the intellectual and cultural backgrounds of these selected works of fiction and develops a comprehensive understanding of the literary techniques through which the fiction writer shapes his/her work. Authors studied may include Flannery O'Connor, James Baldwin, Joyce Carol Oates, Toni Morrison, Joseph Conrad, Virginia Woolf, Margaret Atwood, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. IV

ENG 2054 Creative Writing
Regular writing and class discussion of original manuscripts. Emphasis in any term may be on fiction or poetry and will vary with the instructor. Students wishing to enroll must present satisfactory evidence of ability and serious interest in creative writing. May be repeated once for credit with written permission of the program director. Standard or CR/NC grading. IV

ENG 2104 The Comic Spirit
Selective study of the comic mode, with some consideration of satire, in literature and film. Selections may be chosen from such authors as Aristophanes, Petronius, Rabelais, Shakespeare, Moliere, Austen, and Shaw, and from filmmakers like Chaplin, Capra, Bunuel, and Kubrick. May be used to satisfy a distribution requirement in humanities. IVW

ENG 2124 Introduction to African Fiction
An introduction to African literature from Anglophone (English-speaking) countries. The course will focus on clarifying forms of narration that attract African writers as well as issues such as the place of intellectuals and narrative art within contemporary African cultures, language and audience, language and politics, and tradition and modernity. The course will be supported by journalistic and video material, as well as series of feature films by African directors. Works studied will be by Achebe, Emecheta, Nhuhi, Dangarembga, Ata Aidoo, Ogot, and others. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. IIIA or IV

ENG 2134 American Writing of Nature
A study of the ways in which recent American writers represent nature and of the meaning and viability of an ecological culture. The course will allow students to become aware of how literature (essays, fiction, poetry) explores different ways of naming our relation to the land, to other life forms, and, of course, to other humans. Among the writers studied are Barry Lopez, Leslie Marmon Silko, Gary Snyder, and Denise Levertov. IVW

ENG 2144 Women's Literature
A survey of major issues in the study of women in literature, covering a representative sample of women writers. Questions will be raised about the nature and effects of patriarchal thinking on women and women writers, about the ways in which women's problems emerge in women's writing, and about the ways in which women writers image reality. Prerequisite: At least one ENG course. WS 1004 is recommended preparation. IV W

ENG 2154 American Women Writers and Ethnicity
A study of prose and poetry written by women in America: African-American, Asian, Chicana, American Indian, West and East Indian. The course will focus on questions raised about historicity, race, class, and gender, and the function of writing in addressing such social dynamics. Beyond this inquiry, the course will address issues related to compound identities and communities, class position and education, the construction of sexuality, the formation of collective ethnic or racial consciousness, and women's communities. Writers may include Hurston, Larsen, Morrison, Kingston, Erdrich, Andalzua, Muhkerjee, and others. IV W

ENG 2164 Twentieth Century African American Literature
A study of African American writing that explores the portrayal of urban experience following the Great Migration. The class will read fiction, drama, and non-fiction narratives, listen to jazz, and watch films in order to examine how race, class, and gender shape life in American cities and how literary representation has changed historically. Writers may include Charles Chesnutt, Nella Larsen, Richard Wright, Ann Petry, Gwendolyn Brooks, Paule Marshall, Amiri Baraka, and Toni Morrison. IV

ENG 2174 Popular Fictions
An introduction to the critical study of popular culture. Texts will be selected from a variety of media (print, film, television, or comic books, etc.) so as to open questions of genre (detective, romance, or thriller, etc.). The critical contexts will provide students with the opportunity to investigate the cultural and political implications of popular forms and to consider the role of popular fiction in contemporary life. Media and genres considered may change from term to term. IV

ENG 2184 Literature of the American South
A study of selected fiction, poetry, drama, and nonfiction by Southern writers. The course will address ways in which these writers both reflect and create what come to be considered cultural realities about the region, the relationship between the history of the area and its literature, and the continued existence of the South as a distinctive region within the United States. Writers may include Jefferson, Poe, Twain, Chesnutt, Chopin, the Nashville Agrarians, Hurston, Faulkner, Tennessee Williams, O'Connor, Welty, Gaines, Walker, and Allison. IV

ENG 2284 South African Fiction, 1960-1994
A study of South African fiction written between 1960 and the first fully democratic elections of 1994. The course includes some of the key issues addressed by writers such as J.M. Coetzee, Nadine Gordimer, Bessie Head, Alex La Guma, and Njabulo Ndebele as they lived through the effects of apartheid. Guiding this exploration will be an awareness of developments in the new South Africa as it seeks to come to terms with the violence and racialism of its past. Inclusion of journalistic and video material will provide assistance in understanding the relevant historical and social contexts. IV

ENG 2294 Special Topics in Literature
Study of an author, period, or problem not fully treated in other English courses. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. IV

ENG 2344 The Culture of Nature
Astudy of ways in which popular culture in the U.S. shapes assumptions about nature. The course provides students with a critical language designed to illuminate cultural products in a variety of media (print, film, television, etc.) as well as those aspects of daily life which communicate ideas of nature implicitly. This course will treat a range of topics in relation to environmental concern, including, for example, gender, wilderness, food, tourism, labor, and the sciences. IV

ENG 2364 American Poetry Since 1945
A study of poetry written in the U.S. after 1945, with a focus on poetry's relation to culture. Each course will examine developments in poetic form through reading a selection of representative poems. The focus thereafter will change from term to term, with possible emphasis on, for example, the Beats, African-American or Native American writing, or poetry by women. Instruction will involve students in some creative writing. Prerequisite: none, but ENG 1134 recommended. IV

ENG 2474 Survey of British Literature I
A study of great British writers from the Anglo-Saxon period through the Restoration. Included are such figures as Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, and Donne. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of instructor. III B or IVW

ENG 2484 Survey of British Literature II
A survey of important British literature from the mid-seventeenth century to the present that examines ways in which literary artists both adapted to and reproduced the cultural changes associated with modernity, while dealing with modernity's evolving social and political circumstances. The course will explore a complex cultural tradition in its social context and will include such writers as Addison, Wollstonecraft, Wordsworth, Dickens, Hardy, Woolf, and Hughes. May be used to satisfy a distribution requirement in Western tradition. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing, completion of one English Area II course, or permission of instructor. III B or IV W

ENG 2504 Studies in Film
Study of an auteur or group of auteurs, or of film genres, stylistic or historical questions not treated fully in Introduction to Film. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit if genre is different. IVW

ENG 2514 Genre Film
This course will address the complex question of genre in cinema, investigating the ways in which narrative forms are infused with and transmit culturally specific mythic and ideological meanings. It will examine what constitutes cinematic genre in general, and then consider the developing histories of such genres as the Western, the gangster film, horror, science fiction, etc., as reflected by particular texts. IV

ENG 2534 Detective Fiction
A study of the generic dimensions and directions of detective fiction from Poe to the present. It will investigate the hold detective fiction has had on the popular imagination and the genre's reinforcement or subversion of ideological assumptions. Writers and filmmakers may include Doyle, Sayers, Hammett, Chandler, Paretsky, Hillerman, Himes, Dmytryk, Huston, Polanski, and others. IV W

ENG 2624 American Gothic
A study of the gothic genre in nineteenth- and twentieth-century American literature and culture. The course will examine the influence of the 'insane' as social visionaries in short stories, poetry, novels, and film. Of special consideration: questions about how the concept of madness as insight functions in American culture, how it has come to shape our conception of mystical or religious experience, and how it is represented in popular culture. May include work by Poe, James, Dickinson, Whitman, Faulkner, O'Connor, Kesey, Piercy, Coppola, and others. IV

ENG 2654 Passing in American Literature
A study of American literature in relation to the phenomenon of passing, exploring the complex connections among race, gender, class, and power. The primary readings will be supported by an examination of legal essays, ethnographic studies, and films that develop a context for understanding how Americans culturally and legally defined as black took on white identity and how passing now extends to class, ethnic, and sexual identities. Writiers may include James Weldon Johnson, Nella Larsen, William Faulkner, Americo Paredes, and Danzy Senna. IV

ENG 2714 Jane Austen and Film
Examines what Jane Austen's novels and their film adaptations reveal about both Regency England and the contemporary world. The course explores the novels in their original cultural contexts and asks how these novels speak to the interests, desires, and problems of today's culture. Students will read in detail four of Austen's novels and discuss the efforts of twentieth-century filmmakers to catpure, edit, and update Austen's humor and wit for today's audiences. IV

ENG 2904 Literary Interpretation
Designed to ready students for upper-level work in literary study, this course will develop students' understanding of the goals and methods of literary interpretation. Building on the training in formal analysis provided by introductory courses, it will guide students in considering literary texts in a variety of contexts. The course will also develop students' skill in writing interpretive essays based on sound analysis. Required of English majors at the end of the sophomore year. Prerequisite: ENG 1074, 1134 or 1144 and sophomore standing in the English major. IV

ENG 3014 Special Topics in Literature
Advanced study of an author, period, or topic not fully treated in other English courses. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IV

ENG 3174 Nineteenth-Century American Literature
A study of major writers focusing on the emergence of an American consciousness. Emphasis on Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville, Twain, Crane, Dickinson, Whitman, and James. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3224 Romanticism
A study of major British writers from the Romantic period, with some attention to Continental developments of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Authors may include Blake, Burns, Wordsworth, Coleridge, the Shelleys, Byron, Keats, and others. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3234 Victorian Literature
A study of British literature from 1832 to the end of the century dealing with poetry and prose of such writers as Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Dickens, Eliot, Ruskin, Hardy, and others. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3304 Seventeenth-Century British Literature
A study of major writers of the seventeenth century: Donne, Herbert, Marvell, Jonson, Milton, Bacon, Burton, Browne, Webster, Tourneur, Middleton, etc. Will emphasize intellectual and literary currents in the period as seen in selected prose and will examine trends in drama and lyric poetry after Shakespeare. Generic focus may vary from year to year. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3314 Renaissance Literature
A study of major writers of the Continental and English Renaissance: Erasmus, More, Castiglione, Sidney, Spenser, Marlowe, and other sixteenth-century poets and playwrights. Emphasis on intellectual and cultural backgrounds to the literature. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3324 Shakespeare I
An intensive study of eight to 10 plays drawn from the first half of Shakespeare's career. Will deal with selected histories, comedies, and tragedies up to about 1600. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. Also listed as DRA 3324. IV W

ENG 3334 Shakespeare II
An intensive study of at least 10 plays from the second half of Shakespeare's career. Will deal with the problem comedies, mature tragedies, and tragicomedies. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. Also listed as DRA 3334. IV W

ENG 3404 Early Twentieth-Century British Literature
A study of British literature from the turn of the century to World War II. Most of the course will be devoted to the development of Modernism, but predecessors and successors will also be considered. Writers such as Hardy, Shaw, Yates, Joyce, Eliot, Lawrence, Rhys, and Woolf will be included. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IV W

ENG 3414 Twentieth-Century Brisih Literature, Post-1945
A study of British literature written after World War II. The designation 'British' will include not only authors born in England, but also authors from the former British colonies writing in English. Will explore the intersection of Modernism and Postmodernism, as well as the place of the written word in a world increasingly dominated by mass communication: radio, television, and the advertising image. Authors may include Greene, Lessing, Pinter, Barker, Murdoch, Stoppard, and Rushdie. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IV W

ENG 3504 The Eighteenth-Century British Novel
A study of the novel's beginnings and rapid development in Britain, with special attention to such topics as the rise of literacy, the respectability of writing fiction, and special forms of the novel. Authors may include Defoe, Sterne, Fielding, Richardson, and Austen. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IV W

ENG 3514 The Nineteenth Century British Novel
A study of the major novelists of the nineteenth century. Though individual works may vary between offerings of the course, authors will include such writers as Scott, E. Bronte, Thackeray, Dickens, Eliot, and Hardy. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3564 Milton
An intensive study of the most important poetry and selected prose of the major seventeenthcentury British writer, focusing on Paradise Lost. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3664 Early Twentieth-Century American Literature
A study of North American literature from the turn of the century to World War II. Will include an examination of the Modernist movement and the Harlem Renaissance as well as the work of other influential authors. Reading may include works by Sherwood Anderson, Willa Cather, Kate Chopin, ee cummings, John Dos Passos, William Faulkner, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Charlotte Perkins-Gilman, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, Wallace Stevens, and Richard Wright. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IVW

ENG 3674 Twentieth-Century American Literature, Post-1945
A study of North American literature from 1945 to the present, with special emphasis on the exploration of cultural issues in traditional, multicultural, and feminist literatures. Reading may include the works of Margaret Atwood, James Baldwin, Raymond Carver, Don DeLillo, Joan Didion, E. L. Doctorow, Ralph Ellison, Louise Erdrich, Maxine Hong Kingston, Toni Morrison, Flannery O'Connor, Thomas Pynchon, J. D. Salinger, Sam Shepard, Tennessee Williams, and George Wolfe. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor. IV W

ENG 4014 Independent Study
Readings on an approved topic, followed by the preparation of a critical paper. Intended primarily for honor students unable to arrange for English 4904, 4908. Repeatable once by special permission. Prerequisite: ENG 2904 or permission of instructor and grade point average of at least 3.0.

ENG 4144 Senior Creative Writing Project
Full-year independent study project in creative writing. Emphasis may be on poetry, fiction, or drama and will vary with student interest and availability of instructor. Student is expected to research the craft and produce an organized book-length manuscript. (1 or 2 course units.) Prerequisites: Senior standing, at least one term of ENG 2054, and permission of instructor. ENG 4144 is a prerequisite to 4154.

ENG 4154 Senior Creative Writing Project
Full-year independent study project in creative writing. Emphasis may be on poetry, fiction, or drama and will vary with student interest and availability of instructor. Student is expected to research the craft and produce an organized book-length manuscript. (1 or 2 course units.) Prerequisites: Senior standing, at least one term of ENG 2054, and permission of instructor. ENG 4144 is a prerequisite to 4154.

ENG 4204 Internship in English
The practical application of English skills in journalism, communications, advertising, and other areas. Students choose an appropriate organization in consultation with faculty sponsor. (1 or 2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior standing in the major and permission of instructor. A total of 2 course units may be counted toward the major.

ENG 4208 Internship in English
The practical application of English skills in journalism, communications, advertising, and other areas. Students choose an appropriate organization in consultation with faculty sponsor. (1 or 2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior standing in the major and permission of instructor. A total of 2 course units may be counted toward the major.

ENG 4504 Capstone Seminar
Designed to encourage students to engage more deeply with questions that arise from the study of literature, as well as provide occasion for students to reflect on work done throughout the major. It will, in addition, require that students complete an extended critical essay. Focal literary works will be drawn from a specific historical period and will change from term to term, depending upon the instructor. Required of all English majors in the winter of their senior year. Prerequisites: Completion of ENG 2904, three other period-requirement courses, and senior standing in the major. IV

ENVS 1024 Environmental Science
A broad overview of the structure and function of environmental systems and the impact of human cultures on these systems. The complexity and multidisciplinary nature of environmental issues involving, for example, population growth, air and water pollution, biogeochemical cycles, and energy demands and alternatives, are considered, but emphasis will be placed on our scientific knowledge of these issues. Lecture and laboratory. II Natural Science

ENVS 4004 Environmental Studies Senior Project
Offered to students who plan to enter graduate programs or careers in environmental fields, this course involves independent study of environmental issues under the guidance of professors from various disciplines. It requires students to draw on more than one discipline while analyzing case studies, developing critical bibliographies, writing a substantial research essay, and making a public presentation. Application needs to be made to the Environmental Studies Committee Chair in the term prior to anticipated enrollment. Prerequisites: senior standing, completion of coursework for the Environmental Studies Minor, and permission of Environmental Studies Minor Committee.

FA 1004 Introduction to the Fine Arts
A survey of basic ideas, guiding principles, and historical and contemporary practices in art, drama, and music. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the creative process, analyzing various works of art, developing critical tools for appreciation, perceiving the relationships among the three art forms, and comprehending fundamental issues in the representation of reality through art. Travel to artistic events will occur as part of the course when available. II Fine Arts

FLA 1004 Foundations of the Liberal Arts I
Designed to develop writing and reading ability through exploration of discourse, fiction, and film illustrative of the human condition. Frequent short essays emphasizing exposition and argument; regular class discussion aimed at improving skill in oral communication.

FLA 1104 Foundations of the Liberal Arts II
Designed to continue development of writing and speaking skills, with emphasis on intellectual inquiry and library research. Class discussion of influential texts and films; short essays; training in research methods and in the writing of research papers. Prerequisite: FLA 1004.

FREN 1014 French I: The Personal World
An introduction to French through exploration of the student's immediate world, developing student proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. By the end of the course students will be able to ask for and give information; express their wants, needs, abilities, and obligations; describe people, places, and things in their surroundings; write a basic letter in the language; and give in some detail a report of their typical activities. Laboratory required.

FREN 1024 French II: The French Speaking World
An extension of French I that moves beyond the student's personal experiences toward an increased linguistic and social awareness of French-speaking cultures. By the end of the course students will be able to narrate past events, demonstrate an understanding of various aspects of the French-speaking world, and formulate briefly a position on an issue treated in the course. Prerequisite: FREN 1014 or equivalent proficiency. Laboratory required.

FREN 1034 French III: Topical Issues
An extension of French II that offers a more in-depth look at current issues in French-speaking cultures. Religions, ethnic groups, and demographic patterns will be explored, as will other concerns such as the environment and the economy. Material will include literary texts, films, and productions in the fine arts. Students will give oral and written reports, refute and support positions taken on specific issues, and suggest and negotiate compromises. Prerequisite: FREN 1024 or equivalent proficiency. Laboratory required.

FREN 2001 Practicum in French
The practical application of French language and/or research skills in education, law, business, art, medicine, or other areas. Students devise projects under the direction of the insturctor to integrate practical applications to their particular area of interest. Examples are: creative writing projects, practice of foreign language teaching methodologies, or an internship in a local organization where French language and/or translation skills are required. (1/4 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: permission of instructor.

FREN 2002 Practicum in French
The practical application of French language and/or research skills in education, law, business, art, medicine, or other areas. Students devise projects under the direction of the insturctor to integrate practical applications to their particular area of interest. Examples are: creative writing projects, practice of foreign language teaching methodologies, or an internship in a local organization where French language and/or translation skills are required. (1/2 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: permission of instructor.

FREN 2003 Practicum in French
The practical application of French language and/or research skills in education, law, business, art, medicine, or other areas. Students devise projects under the direction of the insturctor to integrate practical applications to their particular area of interest. Examples are: creative writing projects, practice of foreign language teaching methodologies, or an internship in a local organization where French language and/or translation skills are required. (3/4 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: permission of instructor.

FREN 2004 Practicum in French
The practical application of French language and/or research skills in education, law, business, art, medicine, or other areas. Students devise projects under the direction of the insturctor to integrate practical applications to their particular area of interest. Examples are: creative writing projects, practice of foreign language teaching methodologies, or an internship in a local organization where French language and/or translation skills are required. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: permission of instructor.

FREN 2014 Advanced French Grammar and Composition
A gateway course for students continuing in advanced-level French courses. Designed for students to become more proficient in five key areas of language acquisition (speaking, reading, writing, listening, and culture), the course provides a thorough review that consists of grammarbased activities in a variety of contexts and language functions. Special attention will also be paid to writing in French: understanding different modes of expression (exposition, narration, description, argumentation) and writing effectively (coherent discourse, lexical flexibility, rhetoric, and style). IV

FREN 2024 French Conversation
Develops students' proficiency in French by focusing on oral communication skills. The course will be structured around topics of everyday interest in French and Francophone cultures. The course is designed to allow for student-led discussions and small group work with clearly defined communicative goals. To this end, students will work on exercises in conversational French that include the use of idiomatic expressions, phonetics, and grammar. IV

FREN 2034 French Society and Culture
Examines the cultural, social, and political transformations of French society and culture over the centuries by exploring developments from a number of vantage points (family, religion, values, leisure, social classes, etc.). Topics include political regimens (Empire, Monarchy, Republic), historical figures (Jeanne D'Arc, Louis XIV, Napoleon, De Gaulle), history of ideas (humanism, enlightenment, socialism, fascism, existentialism), and artistic movements (baroque, classicism, realism, symbolism, post-modernism). III B or IV

FREN 2054 Introduction to French Literature
Introduces students to the history of French literature from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century. Emphasis will be placed on reading major works in French within their historical and cultural context. In addition, students will acquire a critical vocabulary for analyzing literary texts. Special attention will be paid to close readings of texts (poetry, theater, and the novel) and different approaches such as resume de texte, explication de texte, commentaire compose, and dissertation explicative. IV W

FREN 2074 French Literature in Translation
Material is chosen according to period, genre, or topic, and varies from year to year. Course subtitle reflects the particular material chosen and is announced in advance. May be repeated if course subtitle is different. Does not count toward the major or minor pattern. No prerequisites. Taught in English. II Humanities or IV

FREN 2294 Special Topics
Study of an area involving the language, literature, or culture not fully treated in other French courses. Topics change and will be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit if the topic is different. Prerequisite: French 1034 or equivalent proficiencies unless specific description states otherwise. IV

FREN 3014 Independent Study and Research
May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

FREN 3094 French Business Culture
An introduction to the French-speaking business world and to its very specific language, this course provides mastery of the fundamental vocabulary, expressions, and cultural practices required to communicate in a variety of business situations. Topics include banking, commerce, finance, the economy, business correspondence, and job interviewing skills. The course does not presume prior knowledge of business principles. Prerequisite: FREN 2014. IVW

FREN 3144 Medieval and Renaissance French: Fin' amor and Humanism
A study of French literature in its historical context, from its origins to the reign of Henri IV. The course encompasses the courtly love tradition, sacred and profane theater, courtly and bourgeois realism, and humanist thought. Works and authors studied may include the chanson de geste, the troubadours, Chretien de Troyes, Christine de Pizan, Villon, Rabelais, Marguerite de Navarre, the poets of the Pleiade, and Montaigne. Prerequisites: FREN 2014, 2054. IV W

FREN 3204 French Literature of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Order, Reason, and Revolution
An exploration of the century of Louis XIV and of the Age of Enlightenment. Using literary texts, film, music, and visual arts, this course will view baroque art and literature, classicism and Versailles, the esprit critique of moralist and philosophical writers, and libertine thought. Authors may include Corneille, Racine, Moli232re, Madame de La Fayette, Descartes, Pascal, Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Laclos. Prerequisite: FREN 2014 or 2054. IVW

FREN 3304 Studies in Genre
A study of the formal elements that constitute genre: its textual components and its historical and literary manifestations. Each time the course is offered, a particular genre is analyzed exclusively, alternately French poetry, theater, and novel. In French poetry, the course will focus on poetic forms and versification through the Troubadors, Villon, the Pleiade, romantics, symbolists, and modern free verse. In French theater, the course will emphasize analysis through performance as it traces theater's origins in medieval liturgical drama and follows with Moliere, Racine, Corneille, Beaumarchais, and the Theatre of the Absurd. In the French novel, the course will trace the evolution from early forms of novelistic writing such as the epistolary novel through the great literary movements of the nineteenth century (realism, romanticism, naturalism) up to the modern novel. Prerequisite: FREN 2014. IV W

FREN 3324 French Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Experiment and Unrest
This course will address the individual's relation to society and the arts in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as it is revealed through representative works of literature, music, and film. The literature of the time reflects French history in its fragmentation and upheaval, but attempts to impose order through the redefinition of traditional literary genres. A study of the Romantic poets, the Naturalist writers, Surrealist theater, Existentialist essays, and the Nouveau Roman will highlight the more successful forms of artistic experimentation. Prerequisite: FREN 2014 or 2054. IV W

FREN 3344 French Cinema Culture
Through a study of French films from the 1890s to the present, this course examines the role of cinema in a social-historical context and provides an in-depth analysis of cinematic 'language.' Since French cinema evolved as both an art and an industry, particular attention will be paid to questions of narrative, representation, production practices, and reception. Topics include the birth of cinema, the silent era, the avant-garde, poetic realism, cinema of the occupation, the New Wave, contemporary trends, and Francophone world cinemas. Prerequisite: FREN 2014. IV W

FREN 3404 The Francophone World and Its Literature
Reading and analysis of literary genres through the centuries in the various Francophone countries with an emphasis on twentieth-century literature. Historical background of each country will provide a context for the readings. Prerequisite: FREN 2014 or 2054. III A or IVW

FREN 3504 Advanced Special Topics
In-depth study of language, literature, or culture not fully treated in other 3000-level courses. Topics change and will be announced in advance; course may focus on a genre, an issue, an author, or a movement. May be repeated once for credit if the topic is different. Prerequisite: FREN 2014 or 2054. IV

FREN 4444 Senior Seminar
Designed as the capstone experience for French majors. While focusing on a particular problem, genre, author, or time period, the selection of cultural texts is geared to refine students' analytical, interpretive, and expressive skills in French. In addition to oral presentation, research, and writing within the sphere of the course topic, students undertake individual projects in their own particular domain of interest in order to integrate their knowledge and experience of French with their future life and career plans. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

GER 1014 German I: The Personal World
An introduction to German through exploration of the student's immediate world, developing student proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. By the end of the course students will be able to ask for and give information; express their wants, needs, abilities, and obligations; describe people, places, and things in their surroundings; write a basic letter in the language; and give in some detail a report of their typical activities. Laboratory required.

GER 1024 German II: The German Speaking World
An extension of German I that moves beyond the student's personal experiences toward an increased linguistic and social awareness of German-speaking cultures. By the end of the course students will be able to narrate past events, demonstrate an understanding of various aspects of the German-speaking world, and formulate briefly a position on an issue treated in the course. Prerequisite: GER 1014 or equivalent proficiency. Laboratory required.

GER 1034 German III: Topical Issues
An extension of German II that offers a more in-depth look at current issues in German-speaking cultures. Religions, ethnic groups, and demographic patterns will be explored, as will other concerns such as the environment and the economy. Material will include literary texts, films, and productions in the fine arts. Students will give oral and written reports, refute and support positions taken on specific issues, and suggest and negotiate compromises. Prerequisite: GER 1024 or equivalent proficiency. Laboratory required.

GER 2044 German Cinema for Non-Minors
A study of German-language cinema and filmmakers from the Expressionists to internationally recognized contemporaries. Film selection will highlight particular periods, topics, directors, or genres; the course subtitle will indicate the special focus of the course. Taught in English, with all films subtitled in English. This course does not count toward the minor. IV

GER 2054 German Cinema for Minors
A study of German-language cinema and filmmakers from the Expressionists to internationally recognized contemporaries. Film selection will highlight particular periods, topics, directors, or genres; the course subtitle will indicate the special focus of the course. Taught in English, with all films subtitled in English. Students will complete individual course assignments in German and language-related work the instructor assigns. IV

GER 2074 German Literature in Translation
Study of highlights of German literature or of a period, topic, genre, or author. Course subtitle reflects the material chosen and is announced in advance. May be repeated for credit if course subtitle is different. Does not count toward the major or minor pattern. No prerequisites. Taught in English. II Humanities or IV

GER 2104 Contemporary Germany
A survey of the present-day culture of Germany including the examination of such issues as the role of the family, education, religion and festivals, entertainment and leisure-time activities, developments in the standard language, and dialects. IVW.

GER 2224 German Geography, Political Institutions, and Social Structures
An examination of the demographic, political, and social implications of German geography. Beginning with a thorough examination of the political map of Germany, this course addresses the structure of the German parliament, the network of federal social institutions, the role of government in German society, and Germany's relationship to the European Union. IV

GER 2281 German Across the Curriculum
Application of German reading and speaking skills to courses in other disciplines. Reading and discussion of original texts chosen in conjunction with the content of the primary course in which the student is currently enrolled. (1/4 course unit.) Prerequisite: GER 1034 or permission of instructor.

GER 2294 Special Topics
Study of an area involving the language, literature, or culture not fully treated in other German courses. Topics change and will be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit if the topic is different. Prerequisite: GER 1034 unless specific description states otherwise. IV

GER 2304 Still Draussen vor der Tur: Other Voices in German
Study of groups that have been excluded from or marginalized in concepts of a German identity: foreign workers and their families, black Germans, Sinti and Roma populations, Austrians, and the Swiss. IVW

GER 2344 The Wall Falls: Putting Germany Together Again
A close study of various aspects of the unification process since 1989. Topics will include reprivatization and reclamation of property, repatriation of Germans living in other former East-Block countries, and adjustments involved in moving from a communist to a capitalist society. IV

GER 2904 Travel in German-Speaking Countries
A fictive trip to Germany, Austria, and/or Switzerland to expand students' cultural and linguistic knowledge. Travel guides that emphasize cultural history, pertinent recorded materials that construct a virtual home-stay with a German-speaking family, the Internet, as well as other authentic reading materials provide rich resources for students to deepen their knowledge of the countries visited. (Taught as a May term course, perhaps to include actual travel periodically.) IV W

GER 3014 Independent Study and Research
May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

GER 3104 Berlin, Bonn, East-Berlin: the 3rd Reich, the Stunde Null
An examination of cultural developments during the Hitler years, including issues of exile and inner emigration, as well as of problems faced following the defeat of Germany in 1945 and its complete political, social, and moral collapse. Prerequisite: One 2000-level GER course or permission of instructor. IVW

GER 3204 Berlin and Weimar: Birth & Rebirth of a Nation, 1871-1933
A study of the cultural implications and effects of both unification under the German Reich and the brief experiment with republican government known as the Weimar Republic. Prerequisite: One 2000-level GER course or permission of instructor. IVW

GER 3304 Vienna & Munich: Aesthetes, Decadents, and the fin-de-siecle
Readings across drama, literature, the arts, philosophy, and psychology to elaborate the aesthetic rebellion and redirection that characterized the end of the nineteenth century. Prerequisite: One 2000-level GER course or permission of instructor. IVW

GER 4204 Immersion Experience Abroad: Germany
A program providing the student an opportunity to apply and improve German language skills as well as gain experience in the field of foreign language instruction. The student will live with a family in Germany and take part in English and German classes at a gymnasium. The student will keep a German journal while there, which will be submitted upon return, along with a paper in German evaluating the experience. There will also be an oral examination to demonstrate the student's improved speaking skills. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: One 2000-level GER course, one 3000-level GER course, and permission of instructor.

GER 4208 Immersion Experience Abroad: Germany
A program providing the student an opportunity to apply and improve German language skills as well as gain experience in the field of foreign language instruction. The student will live with a family in Germany and take part in English and German classes at a gymnasium. The student will keep a German journal while there, which will be submitted upon return, along with a paper in German evaluating the experience. There will also be an oral examination to demonstrate the student's improved speaking skills. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: One 2000-level GER course, one 3000-level GER course, and permission of instructor.

GRK 1014 Greek I
An introduction to the grammar, morphology, and syntax of classical Greek.

GRK 1024 Greek II
A continuation of GRK 1014 with attention to Greek literature and culture. Prerequistie: GRK 1014.

GRK 1034 Greek III
A continuation of GRK 1024, with emphasis shifting from grammatical forms to a critical and careful reading of a Greek prose text, such as Plato's Apology, Xenophon's Anabasis, or the New Testament. Prerequistie: GRK 1024.

HIST 1014 Western Civilization I: Western Civilization to the Seventeenth Century
A study of the historical development of Western civilization to the seventeenth century, with special emphasis on Greece, Rome, the medieval age, and the Renaissance and Reformation movements. A chronological and political approach with appropriate attention to cultural achievements and economic characteristics of these periods. III B

HIST 1024 Western Civilization II: Western Civilization from the Seventeenth Century to the Present
A study of Western civilization from the Enlightenment to the present, with special emphasis on the Atlantic Revolutions, ideologies of the nineteenth century, industrialism, the impact of the West on other civilizations, world conflicts of the twentieth century, and problems of contemporary society. III B

HIST 1154 United States to 1865
A study and critical evaluation of the political, economic, and social forces that shaped the development of the American colonies and the United States from 1492 through the Civil War, noting the varying historical interpretations of those forces.

HIST 1164 United States From 1865
A study and critical evaluation of the fundamental forces contributing to the emergence of modern America from 1865.

HIST 2034 Blacks in American Life and Thought
Some attention to the African background and experience of Blacks in the West Indies and Latin America. Examines the experience of Blacks during the antebellum period by focusing on slavery in the South and the free Black in the North. Also examines Black adjustment to American society in the period since the Civil War. (U.S. field) IV

HIST 2104 Medieval Europe
A study of a millennium of social experiments to mitigate, redirect, and rationalize the violent individualism of the Germanic peoples who swept into Europe after the Roman Empire crumbled. Prerequisite: HIST 1014. (Pre-Modern field) IV

HIST 2114 History of Indian Civilization
Following readings from some of the Indian classics (e.g., Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Ramayana), the course focuses on India from the sixteenth century on: Mughal and British periods through independence. (Non-Western field) III A or IVW

HIST 2134 Second World War
A study of the causes, conduct, and results of World War II. Special attention will be given to the impact of the war on the home fronts. Depending on the year offered, the course will concentrate on either American or European experiences. IV

HIST 2144 Europe in the Nineteenth Century
A study of European history from the Congress of Vienna through the First World War, emphasizing the growth of nationalism, the effects of the Industrial Revolution, the development of socialist doctrines, and the rise of neoimperialism. (Modern European field) IVW

HIST 2154 Europe in the Eighteenth Century
An examination of the major forces and events from the age of absolutism through the French Revolution. Areas of study include the political, social, and cultural effects of the Enlightenment, the development of the international European state system, Europe's relations with the non- European world, the rise of the middle classes, and the emergence of a consumer culture. (Modern European field) IV W

HIST 2184 The Holocaust
An in-depth historical exploration of one of the most horrendous crimes in history, the murder of six million Jews and millions of others during the Second World War. Students will examine the development of anti-Semitic thought in Western culture, the means the Nazis used to undertake the 'Final Solution,' and Jewish experiences during the Holocaust. The course will conclude with the attempt to understand and make sense of the Holocaust in the post-Holocaust world. (Modern European field) IV

HIST 2204 Special Topics in History
The study of an era, a problem, or a commanding figure not fully treated in other courses. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit. CR/NC grading when used as a travel course. Prerequisite: History 1024 or permission of instructor. (Students may petition the program to allow Special Topics courses to fulfill history major field distribution requirements.) IV

HIST 2224 Archaic and Classical Greece
A survey of the political, social, and cultural history of ancient Greece, with emphasis on the era of the polis. (Pre-Modern field) IV

HIST 2244 The Roman Empire
A survey of Roman history from the beginnings of the principate through the late antique period (i.e., first-sixth centuries A.D.) with an emphasis on Roman political and social institutions, the definition of citizenship, and the problem of unity in a multicultural society. (Pre-Modern field) IV

HIST 2304 Pre-Modern China
An examination of Chinese history from the Shang Dynasty (c. 1500-1122 B.C.) through the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Special emphasis is placed on social and intellectual developments that influenced Chinese culture. (Pre-Modern field; Non-Western field) III A or IV

HIST 2374 History of Africa
A study of African history from pre-colonial times to the present. Areas of focus include Africa's indigenous cultural, social and political developments in the pre-colonial period and the changes brought by encounters with the outside world. The course stresses the importance of history to understanding the socio-political situation in contemporary Africa. (Non- Western field) III A or IV

HIST 2404 Latin American Civilization I
Surveys Latin American civilization from its pre-Columbian beginnings to the independence movements of the early nineteenth century. Focus will be placed on the encounters among European, African, and indigenous peoples that resulted in new and changing cultures. (Non- Western field) III A or IVW

HIST 2414 Latin American Civilization II
Surveys Latin American civilization from the period of independence to the present. Though the focus is, from time to time, placed on a particular culture, country, or region, the stress will be on the themes and movements common to Latin America as a whole. Emphasis will be placed on those aspects of the Latin American past that helped to shape and explain its present. (Non- Western field) III A or IVW

HIST 2444 Latin American Revolutions
Revolutionary upheaval characterized Latin America throughout the twentieth century. This course examines the causes of revolutions, the motivations of those who instigated rebellions, and the impact of revolutionary activity on all groups in society. The course will focus on Mexico, Bolivia, Cuba, and Nicaragua, all countries that experienced major social upheaval, and examine cases of unsuccessful revolts in South and Central America. Students will draw out comparisons between revolutions that 'succeeded' and those that 'failed.' Prerequisite: HIST 1024, 1154 or 1164. (Non-Western field) III A or IV

HIST 2744 Research Methods Seminar
An introduction to historical research methods, concentrating on the nature, use, evaluation, and analysis of primary sources. Students will examine a variety of primary sources, which may include memoirs, newspapers, archival documents, oral histories, and other materials. Students will also develop skills in placing sources in their proper historical context and in constructing historical arguments. IV

HIST 3074 England to 1660
The study of English history from the Anglo-Saxons through the Civil War. Considerable emphasis on class discussion of key topics or problems in English history (e.g., Norman Conquest, Magna Carta, and Puritanism) based on outside reading. Prerequisite: HIST 1014. IV W

HIST 3084 England Since 1660
Study of English history from the Restoration to the present. Considerable emphasis on class discussion of key topics or problems in English history (e.g., Revolution of 1688, George III, and the Irish problem) based on outside reading. Prerequisite: HIST 1024. (Modern European field) IVW

HIST 3124 Women in American Life and Thought
An examination of the role of women in American life and thought involving an analysis of the changing roles of women from the colonial era to the present. Focus on the varieties of women's experiences at every level of social life, in the professions, and in the family, as well as women's struggle for suffrage and equal rights. Prerequisite: HIST 1154 or WS 1004. Also listed as WS 3124. (U.S. field) IV W

HIST 3144 Gender in European History
Investigates how understandings of gender have affected European women and men from the Enlightenment to the contemporary era. Topics covered may include the relationship of gender to the revolution, industrialization, imperialism, totalitarianism, and total war, as well as the role of gender in everyday life. Prerequisite: HIST 1024, 2144, 2154, or WS 1004 or permission of instructor. Also listed as WS 3144 (Modern European field) IV

HIST 3154 Recent American History
An examination of the major forces that have shaped contemporary America. Set against the backdrop of Cold War political culture, the course will focus on such topics as the Vietnam War, Watergate, civil rights movements, and identity politics. Prerequisite: HIST 1164. (U.S. field) IV W

HIST 3204 Special Topics in History
The advanced study of an era, a problem, or a commanding figure not fully treated in other courses. Topics change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit. CR/NC grading when used as a travel course. Prerequisite: Established by the individual instructor each time the course is offered. (Students may petition the program to allow Special Topics courses to fulfill history major field distribution requirements.) IV

HIST 3224 Diplomacy & War in Antiquity
Aims to provide a richer understanding of how political differences were settled in antiquity, with a view to ascertaining which problems and solutions are relevant only to the context of their time, and which might be instructive to us in the present. Prerequisite: HIST 1014 or permission of instructor. (Pre-Modern field) IV

HIST 3244 Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar is a pivotal figure, particularly significant for Americans because he represents a realized alternative to a republican government, and a study of his rise to supreme authority is an object lesson in the destabilizing and perversion of a constitution. Even so, he was a truly dramatic figure, with his great virtue, his clemency, being his tragic flaw. This course will illuminate the context and method of Caesar's rise to power. Prerequisite: HIST 1014 or permission of instructor. (Pre-Modern field) IV

HIST 3304 Emergence of Modern America 1893-1920
An examination of the major intellectual, cultural, political, social, and economic forces that shaped modern America. Set against the backdrop of industrialism, urbanization, and western settlement, the course will focus on such topics as large-scale immigration, reform efforts, the fight for women's suffrage, the rise of professionalism, and the expanding role of the United States in foreign affairs. Prerequisite: HIST 1164 or permission of instructor. (U.S. field) IV W

HIST 3324 Colonial America: 1565-1787
An examination and critical evaluation of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces that shaped the area which became the United States. Particular attention will be given to the relationships between Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans; the role of the wilderness and frontier in American culture; and the colonists' use of republican ideology. The course will also focus on a variety of historical interpretations/perspectives. Prerequisite: HIST 1154. (U.S. field) IV W

HIST 3344 The New Nation: 1787-1861
A critical evaluation of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces that shaped the United States in its early years as a nation. Particular attention will be given to the development of a political party system, the rise of industrialism, the variety of settlement patterns by Americans, and the roles of race/class/gender relations in forming national identity. This course will also focus on diverse historical interpretations and perspectives. Prerequisite: HIST 1154 (U.S. field) IVW

HIST 3404 Europe, 1914-1945
A study of Europe during and between the two world wars, focusing on political, social, military, and cultural issues. Special emphasis is placed on the concept of total war and its effect on political and social institutions. Other topics include the Russian Revolution, the rise of Fascism and Nazism, the crisis of democracy and the approach of World War II, and Europe's relations with the non-European world. Prerequisite: HIST 1024. (Modern European field) IV W

HIST 3414 The Contemporary World, 1945 to the Present
A study of the forces that have shaped the world since 1945, including the Cold War, decolonization and neo-colonialism, the rise of emerging nations in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, the collapse of communism in Europe, and the growth of globalization. Prerequisite: HIST 1024. (Modern European field) IVW

HIST 3434 Central American History
Examines the major elements that have shaped Central American society from the colonial era to the present. Why has Central America been particularly prone to dictatorships, endemic poverty, and racial violence? We will explore the role of race/ethnicity, class divisions, religion, gender, international influences, and violence in shaping the region. Prerequisite: HIST 2404 or 2414 or permission of instructor. (Non-Western field) III A or IVW

HIST 3454 Women and Men in Latin America
The general stereotype of women in Latin America portrays them as wives and mothers who are confined to the domestic sphere and have few options or opportunities to shape their own destinies. Stereotypical men are domineering, brutish 'machos.' The purpose of this class is to examine the role of women and men in Latin American history, to challenge these stereotypes, and to explore how gender roles mediated the lives of ordinary people. Prerequisite: One history course. (Non-Western field) III A or IV

HIST 3464 Modern German History
A survey of German political and social history from 1848 to the present. Main topics include nationalism and the formation of the German state, German experiences in the two world wars and the efforts to build democracy in the context of military defeat, the rise of Nazism, and the dilemmas posed by re-unification at the end of the Cold War. Prerequisite: HIST 1024. (Modern European field) IVW

HIST 3554 History of Imperial Russia
An examination of autocracy, bureaucracy, and serfdom in Imperial Russia. Focus is on the attempts to modernize the empire in the nineteenth century, the revolutionary movements from Decembrism to Leninism, the era of 'Great Reforms,' and the critical role of the intelligentsia. Concludes with the revolution of 1905 and the events leading to 1917. Prerequisite: HIST 1014 or 1024. (Modern European field) IV W

HIST 3564 History of the Soviet Union
An examination of the February and Bolshevik revolutions, the rule of Lenin and Stalin, collectivization, the purges, the Nazi-Soviet pact, World War II, and de-Stalinization. Prerequisite: HIST 1024. (Modern European field) IVW

HIST 3624 From Alexander to Cleopatra
An exploration of the Greek and Roman experience during the period 336-31 B.C. Its primary object is to examine the interplay between cultures in a historical context. Topics for discussion include the creation of identity, patterns of cultural assimilation, equity within and between societies, civil-military relations, and the use and abuse of propaganda. Prerequisite: HIST 1014. (Pre-Modern field) IVW

HIST 4194 Historical Methodology
A study of the basic methods and tools of historical research and the techniques of writing effective research papers. Discussion of current issues in the study of history. Prerequisites: HIST 1014, 1024, 1154, and 1164. IV

HIST 4204 Internship in History
A program offering supervised placement in organizations providing experience in use, dissemination, or administration of historical materials and information. The student chooses an appropriate organization in consultation with the internship supervisor. (1 or 2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, history major, and permission of instructor. A total of 2 course units may be counted toward the major.

HIST 4208 Internship in History
A program offering supervised placement in organizations providing experience in use, dissemination, or administration of historical materials and information. The student chooses an appropriate organization in consultation with the internship supervisor. (1 or 2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, history major, and permission of instructor. A total of 2 course units may be counted toward the major.

HIST 4444 Senior Research Seminar
An extensive study of a period of history, culminating in a research paper or a bibliographic essay. May be repeated an indefinite number of times provided the topic is different. Prerequisite: HIST 4194 or permission of the instructor. IV

HIST 4904 Senior Honors
Provides an opportunity for the qualified history major to do independent work in the field under the supervision of a faculty member. A senior who has taken 7 courses in history and who has a 3.0 grade point average overall and in major courses may apply to enter the program by submitting a project proposal and securing permission of the faculty. Students may receive credit for either 1 or 2 course units, depending on the project, but they may not receive credit for more than 1 course unit per term.

HRT 1034 Introduction to Hospitality Industry and Tourism
A study of the growth, development, and nature of the hospitality industry from early inns to the present. Will provide an understanding of the many facets of hospitality operations by type, discussion of guest relations, basic management principles, the breakdown of the 'front of the house' and 'back of the house' operations, and organization of hospitality management systems. Will include fundamentals of food services and lodging processes, concepts, and principles.

HRT 2044 Principles of Food Theory & Preparation
The selection, composition, and preparation of food and the changes that occur during cooking and processing. Development of professional techniques and procedures of quality food production through laboratory experiences. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

HRT 3144 Quantity Food Production Management
The study and application of techniques, standards, and principles of quantity food production and service. Management principles in planning, organizing, staffing, and coordinating the kitchen are experienced through a series of dinners catered by students in the curriculum. Prerequisite: HRT 2044.

HRT 3212 Special Topics in Hospitality
Study of a problem area in the hospitality industry not analyzed in other courses. Topic will change and be announced in advance. Course may be repeated provided different topics are taken. (1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: HRT 1034 and permission of instructor.

HRT 3214 Special Topics in Hospitality
Study of a problem area in the hospitality industry not analyzed in other courses. Topic will change and be announced in advance. Course may be repeated provided different topics are taken. (1 course unit.) Prerequisite: HRT 1034 and permission of instructor.

HRT 3224 Food and Beverage Controls and Purchasing
Fundamentals of food, beverage, and labor controls. The development of specifications and standards used in purchasing, receiving, storing, and issuing. Prerequisites: HRT 2044 and ACCT 2134.

HRT 3314 Lodging Operations and Management
A study of the theory and its application of the duties, responsibilities, problems, and opportunities encountered within the departments of lodging facilities. Provides a review of every aspect of lodging management and covers all departments from the front office to finance, from marketing to housekeeping. Prerequisite: HRT 1034.

HRT 3324 Restaurant Management
A study of the principles of planning, organizing, and controlling required of a successful restaurateur. Investigates the management of customers, operations, and employees in all departments of financially successful food service operations. Prerequisite: HRT 1034.

HRT 3544 Travel and Tourism
Principles and practices of domestic and international tourism and leisure travel industries including cultural aspects, economic and social dimensions, marketing, and research. Prerequisite: BA 3014 and 3024.

HRT 4204 Internship
A program offering students supervised instruction in a non-classroom setting. CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

HRT 4214 Independent Study
Self-directed study in which the student initiates, plans, and conducts research activities under the supervision and guidance of a faculty member. Prerequisites: senior standing and permission of the instructor.

IDS 2291 Special Topics/Interdisciplinary Studies
Offered periodically in order to present creative or special topics of interdisicplinary interest. Particular instructors may choose standard or CR/NC grading for the class. (1/4 course unit.)

IDS 2292 Special Topics/Interdisciplinary Studies
Offered periodically in order to present creative or special topics of interdisicplinary interest. Particular instructors may choose standard or CR/NC grading for the class. (1/2 course unit.)

IDS 2294 Special Topics/Interdisciplinary Studies
Offered periodically in order to present creative or special topics of interdisciplinary interest. Particular instructors may choose standard or CR/NC grading for the class. (1 course unit.) IV

IDS 3292 Special Topics/Interdisciplinary Studies
Offered periodically in order to present creative or special topics of interdisicplinary interest. Particular instructors may choose standard or CR/NC grading for the class. (1/2 course unit.)

IDS 3294 Special Topics/Interdisciplinary Studies
Offered periodically in order to present creative or special topics of interdisciplinary interest. Particular instructors may choose standard or CR/NC grading for the class. (1 course unit.) IV

LAT 1014 Latin I
An introduction to the grammar, morphology, and syntax of classical Latin. Laboratory required.

LAT 1024 Latin II
Acontinuation of LAT 1014 with attention to Latin literature and culture. Prerequisite: LAT 1014. Laboratory required.

LAT 1034 Latin III
A continuation of LAT 1024. Attention will be given to new aspects of Latin grammar, syntax, and style. We will examine selections from Latin poetry and prose in order to develop further reading skills and a critical appreciation of Latin literature. Authors read will change from term to term. Prerequisite: LAT 1024 or permission of instructor. Laboratory required.

LAT 2014 Readings in Latin Literature
A continuation of LAT 1034. A study of the Latin language and literature through close study of selected authors. Prerequisite: LAT 1034 or equivalent proficiency. IV

LAT 3014 Independent Study and Research
May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

LAT 3024 Advanced Readings in Latin Literature
Reading and critical analysis of the work of a major Roman author and discussion of the author's contributions to the literary tradition. Authors will vary and the course may be repeated with a different author. Prerequisite: LAT 2014.

MATH 1034 Introduction to Contemporary Mathematics
A survey of mathematical ideas that are important in contemporary applications of mathematics. The primary aim is to develop conceptual understanding and appreciation, not necessarily computational expertise. The course will assume only basic ability in arithmetic, geometry, and elementary algebra. I Mathematics

MATH 1144 Elementary Statistics
Emphasis on applied statistics. Included are topics related to data collection (random sampling and experimental design), organizing and describing data (histograms, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and least squares regression), probability theory (finite probability and the normal distribution), and inferential statistics (confidence intervals and tests of significance). I Mathematics

MATH 1214 Functions
The function concept and elementary functions important in mathematics and its applications. Included are the general theory of functions and graphing, polynomial and algebraic functions, logarithmic and exponential functions, trigonometric functions, topics from analytic geometry, and polar coordinates. Credit is not allowed for this course if the student has college credit for calculus.

MATH 1304 Calculus I
Topics on limits and continuity, the derivative and its application, the differential and antidifferentiation, and the definite integral. Laboratory. I Mathematics.

MATH 1324 Calculus II
A continuation of MATH 1304. Topics on applications of the definite integral; derivatives and integrals of logarithmic, exponential, and trigonometric functions; techniques of integration; hyperbolic functions; polar coordinates; indeterminate forms, improper integrals; and Taylor's formula. Prerequisite: A grade of C- or better in MATH 1304. I Mathematics

MATH 2054 History of Mathematics
Traces the development of mathematics through two major periods: before the seventeenth century, when mathematics was more formal and intuitive in its approach, and after the seventeenth century, when the approach became more rigorous. Emphasis on Greek and Hindu-Arabic mathematics in the early period and on the development of analytic geometry, calculus, and related concepts in the later period. Brief biographies of some of the great mathematicians and discussion of some of the famous problems. IV

MATH 2144 Calculus III
A continuation of MATH 1324. Topics on infinite series, vectors in the plane and in threedimensional space, calculus of functions of several variables, partial derivatives, and multiple integration. Prerequisite: A grade of C- or better in MATH 1324. IV

MATH 3014 Modern Geometry
A survey of modern geometry using both synthetic and analytic points of view. Topics include axiomatics, finite geometries, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, transformational geometry, and geometric constructions. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

MATH 3024 Theory of Numbers
Integers, unique factorization, linear Diophantine equations, congruences, Fermat's and Wilson's theorems, divisors, perfect numbers, Euler's theorem and function, primitive roots and indices, quadratic congruences, numbers in other bases, Pythagorean triangles, and sums of two squares. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

MATH 3064 Discrete Mathematics I
A survey of mathematical topics that do not involve calculus, with an emphasis on proof techniques. Major topics will include formal logic, number theory, mathematical induction, set theory, and principles of counting. Students will acquire an understanding of the theories involved, as well as computational facility with the topics. Prerequisite: A grade of C- or better in MATH 1304 or permission of the instructor. IV

MATH 3074 Discrete Mathematics II
A continuation of MATH 3064. Major topics will include functions, recurrence relations, set relations, graph theory, and trees. A number of new proof techniques will be introduced. The student will gain an enlarged understanding of the concepts underlying discrete mathematics. Prerequisite: A grade of C- or better in MATH 3064. IV

MATH 3084 Differential Equations
Standard methods of solving ordinary differential equations, singular solutions, simultaneous differential equations, special second-order differential equations, and applications to geometry, mechanics, and physics. Prerequisite: MATH 2144. IV

MATH 3094 Special Topics in Mathematics
Topics such as topology, differential geometry, complex variables, advanced differential equations, and operations research are offered when there is demand. May be taken for credit more than once. Prerequisite: Determined by topic. May be chosen as a major pattern elective in mathematics or teaching mathematics. IV

MATH 3114 Higher Analysis I
Continues the study of calculus to limits, continuous functions, bounded functions, intermediate value theorem, Taylor's formula and L'Hompital's rule, vectors and their application, Cauchy's generalized law of the mean, functions of several variables, and partial differentiation. Prerequisite: MATH 2144. IV

MATH 3124 Higher Analysis II
A continuation of MATH 3114 with the addition of implicit functions, transformations and mappings, double and triple integrals, curves and surfaces, line integrals, theory of integration, and infinite series. Prerequisite: MATH 3114. IV

MATH 3134 Probability and Statistics I
Combinatorial analysis, axioms of probability, discrete and continuous random variables, expectations and moment-generating functions, and limit theorems. Prerequisite: MATH 2144. Suggested for mathematics majors; may be taken as a major pattern elective in teaching mathematics. IV

MATH 3144 Probability and Statistics II
A continuation of MATH 3134. Sampling theory, estimation, maximum likelihood and unbiased estimators, statistical hypotheses, statistical tests, nonparametric methods, sufficient statistics, and other topics in statistical inference. Prerequisite: MATH 3134. Suggested for mathematics majors. May be taken as a major pattern elective in teaching mathematics. IV

MATH 3204 Linear Algebra
Systems of linear equations and their solution, theory of matrices, linear transformations, characteristic values, and inner product spaces. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

MATH 3224 Abstract Algebra
An axiomatic approach to the number system, general algebraic systems, groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

MATH 3304 Numerical Analysis I
An investigation of numerical methods for computer solutions of applied problems. Topics include review of calculus, round-off errors and computer arithmetic, solutions of equations in one variable, interpolation and polynomial approximation, approximation theory, numerical differentiation, and integration. Prerequisites: MATH 1324 or permission of instructor. Also listed as CS 3304. IV

MATH 3324 Numerical Analysis II
Acontinuation of MATH 3304 with the addition of initial value problems for ordinary differential equations, direct methods for solving linear systems, iterative techniques in matrix algebra, numerical solutions of nonlinear systems of equations, boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations, and numerical solutions to partial-differential equations. Prerequisite: MATH 4044. Also listed as CS 4054. IV

MATH 4204 Mathematics Internship
A course offering students supervised instruction in a non-classroom setting. May not be used to meet the requirements for a mathematics major. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior or senior status and permission of mathematics program director.

MATH 4214 Independent Study
Readings on an approved topic. May be repeated once for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Determined by topic. Major pattern elective in mathematics.

MATH 4294 Senior Thesis
The Senior Thesis normally begins in the fall of the senior year with independent study/research under the guidance of a faculty member, focusing on a topic chosen by the student and approved by the math program. The independent study project culminates at the end of the semester with a lecture, a paper, and possibly an exam. Typically, the student would choose the topic, write a proposal, and obtain faculty approval at the end of the junior year.

MATH 4314 Honors in Mathematics
A topic, chosen by the student in consultation with a professor, is studied in depth. Will use library facilities for research. All work will be independent. May be taken for credit more than once. Prerequisites: Determined by topic.

MUS 1004 Music Appreciation
A survey of Western Art Music from the Middle Ages to the present. The course develops advanced listening skills and contextualizes musical works and styles within a broad cultural framework. II Fine Arts

MUS 1024 Introduction to Music Technology
An introduction to music technologies including software applications and hardware components used in the teaching and business of music. Topics include MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), music notation and scanning, digital sequencing, computer assisted instruction, and audio mixing and recording. Specifically students are introduced to many software programs and work closely with the following applications: Sibelius, PhotoScore, Cakewalk Home Studio. Software and hardware are introduced and explored through various creative projects.

MUS 1154 Excursions Into Non-Western Music
Introduces students to the music of cultures that developed apart from the Eurocentric tradition, including but not limited to sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Rim, Latin and South America, Native America, and the Asian Subcontinent. III A

MUS 1274 Music Theory for the University Student
Develops proficiency in the specific skills and theoretical concepts necessary to read and write music, as well as in the related aural and keyboard skills. Basic pitch and rhythmic notation and manuscript techniques, scales and keys, intervals, chords (including both traditional and commercial notation), and transposition and harmonization. II Fine Arts

MUS 1864 Theoretical Skills of Music I
Intended for the student with some music background, this course combines classroom theory with skill-related development for the serious musician. Beginning with a review of music reading, the student proceeds quickly through musical rudiments to the study of part-writing. The course also includes an introduction to the solfege system, sight-reading, as well as to the keyboard. II Fine Arts

MUS 2024 Audio Recording Technology
A practical study of applications in analog and digital recording technology. Topics of study include the physical aspects of sound, microphone techniques, recording console operation, signal processing and digital effects equipment, hard-disc recording and reproduction, and mastering and mixing techniques. Students will gain experience in hardware and software use. Prerequisete: MUS 1024. IV

MUS 2051 Transylvania Choir
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2061 Transylvania Concert Band
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2071 Jazz Ensemble
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2081 Chamber Orchestra
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2091 Central Kentucky Concert Band
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2114 History of Music: Ancient to Baroque
A survey of music history from ancient times to 1750. Prerequisite: MUS 2864. IVW

MUS 2121 Madrigal Singers
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2124 History of Music: Baroque to Present
A survey of music history from 1725 to the present. Prerequisite: MUS 2864. IVW

MUS 2131 Transylvania Singers Women's Chorus
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2151 Accompanying
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2161 Percussion Ensemble
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2171 Pioneer Voices Men's Chorus
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2291 Special Topics in Music
The study of an area of inquiry in music not fully treated in other courses. Topics may be theoretical, historical, or practical and may include, but not be limited to, travel/performance opportunities. Topics change. May be repeated for credit if the topic is different. (1/2 course unit.)Standard or CR/NC grading, depending on topic. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

MUS 2292 Special Topics in Music
The study of an area of inquiry in music not fully treated in other courses. Topics may be theoretical, historical, or practical and may include, but not be limited to, travel/performance opportunities. Topics change. May be repeated for credit if the topic is different. (1/2 course unit.)Standard or CR/NC grading, depending on topic. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

MUS 2294 Special Topics in Music
The study of an area of inquiry in music not fully treated in other courses. Topics may be theoretical, historical, or practical and may include, but not be limited to, travel/performance opportunities. Topics change. May be repeated for credit if the topic is different. (1 course unit.) Standard or CR/NC grading, depending on topic. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. IV

MUS 2321 Opera Workshop
Participation in ensembles which meet a minimum of twice a week will result in the granting of 1/4 course unit of credit per term toward graduation. All ensembles use standard grading and may be repeated for credit. Music majors may count a maximum of 2 course units of ensemble credit toward the major.

MUS 2372 Marching Band Techniques
Prepares students to administer and direct the marching band component of a high school instrumental music program. Topics include music selection, choreography, techniques of drill instruction, coordination of auxiliary visual elements, and administrative concepts and techniques. (1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: Music major or minor.

MUS 2864 Theoretical Skills of Music II
A continuation of Music 1864, introducing chromatic harmony and emphasizing part-writing, cadences and small forms, and musical elaboration techniques. A continued emphasis on musicianship includes longer and more complex sight-reading and dictation, as well as greater emphasis on keyboard improvisation. Lab required. Prerequisite: MUS 1864. IV Prerequisite for all 3000- and 4000-level music courses: MUS 2864 or permission of instructor.

MUS 3072 Piano Pedagogy I
A study of teaching procedures and material for piano instruction with adaptation to various age levels, including the adult beginner. Correct habits of study and performance, recognition of individual differences, presentation of sight-reading, technical material, aural development, memorization, pedaling, and music interpretation are considered. Leading piano methods and supplementary materials are examined with application to individual and class lessons. One-hour lecture and one-hour supervised teaching per week. (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3082 Piano Pedagogy II
A continuation of MUS 3072. (1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: MUS 3072.

MUS 3122 String Performance and Pedagogy
The teacher education student will learn the basic performance skills of the instrument family and develop strategies for teaching those skills to students at all levels of instruction (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3132 Woodwind Performance and Pedagogy
The teacher education student will learn the basic performance skills of the instrument family and develop strategies for teaching those skills to students at all levels of instruction (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3142 Brass Performance and Pedagogy
The teacher education student will learn the basic performance skills of the instrument family and develop strategies for teaching those skills to students at all levels of instruction (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3152 Diction for Singers I
Singing diction as well as vocal techniques appropriate for the pronunciation of languages common to the classical vocal repertoire are studied. The languages studied in this term are English and Italian. See MUS 3252. (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3154 Teaching Choral and General Music
For music education majors. Synthesizes the knowledge acquired in the foundation courses taken in the education program with the concepts and skills gained in the content area to enable the teacher education student in music to develop a choral and/or general music program. The course will focus on the implementation of the developmentally appropriate educational practices, instructional strategies, and curricular content. Attention will be given to current research on the cognitive foundations of music. Special emphasis will be placed on the music teacher's role in the creation of interactive learning and processes, on the development of the teacher education student's diagnostic and prescriptive skills, and on discipline-specific methods of assessment of student writing. Requires 15 hours of observations and interviews of school personnel. IV

MUS 3162 Percussion Performance and Pedagogy
The teacher education student will learn the basic performance skills of the instrument family and develop strategies for teaching those skills to students at all levels of instruction (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3224 Choral Conducting and Arranging
For music majors only. Basic principles of conducting, score preparation, arranging, and vocal techniques for chorus preparation. IV

MUS 3234 Instrumental Conducting & Orchestration
For music majors only. Basic baton techniques, transposition, orchestration, and score reading for instrumental ensembles. IV

MUS 3252 Diction for Singers II
Singing diction as well as vocal techniques appropriate for the pronunciation of languages common to the classical vocal repertoire are studied. The languages studied in this term are German and French. See MUS 3152. (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3272 Piano Literature I
Survey of Baroque, classical, Romantic, and twentieth-century compositions for piano, with particular emphasis on form, style, compositional technique, historical background, and pedagogical issues. (1/2 course unit.) Prerequisites: MUS 2124, 2864.

MUS 3282 Piano Literature II
In-depth study of an issue or topic, to be defined by student and instructor, related to keyboard literature. The student's work will culminate with a public presentation. (1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: MUS 3272.

MUS 3314 Church Music Administration
A basic course in administering a church music program. The graded choir program, budgeting, scheduling, worship and the arts, and related topics. IV

MUS 3322 Vocal Literature I
Vocal solo literature from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. Emphasis on the interpretation and performance of different styles. (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3332 Vocal Literature II
Vocal solo literature beginning with the nineteenth century, with special emphasis on operatic arias and German lieder, through twentieth-century solo songs. Emphasis on interpretation and performance of different styles. (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3352 Vocal Performance and Pedagogy
For teaching music majors only. The teacher education student will learn basic vocal performance skills and develop strategies for teaching those skills to students at all levels of instruction. (1/2 course unit.)

MUS 3354 Teaching Instrumental Music
For teaching music majors only. Synthesizes the knowledge acquired in the foundation courses taken in the education program with the concepts and skills gained in the content area to enable the teacher education student in music to develop a successful instrumental music program. The course will focus on the implementation of developmentally appropriate educational practices, instructional strategies, and curricular content. Attention will be given to current research on the cognitive foundations of music, on music as it relates to other disciplines, on the development of the teacher education student's diagnostic and prescriptive skills, and on discipline-specific methods of assessment of student learning. Emphasis will be placed not only on the teaching of technical skills, but also on the use of that skill base as a vehicle to stimulate higher-level critical thinking on the part of the learner. Requires 15 hours of observations and interviews of school personnel. IV

MUS 3774 History of Jazz/Rock Music
Explores the special cross-cultural development of American popular music since 1900. From African and European roots, this music evolves into the blues, New Orleans jazz, swing, the jazz avant-garde, and current jazz styles. The course then considers the 'language of rebellion' as a seminal factor in the rapid development of Rock to present day. Styles presented will include electric blues, rockabilly and the British invasion; acid rock and psychedelic blues; corporate rock, metal, and punk; grunge, rap and industrial, as well as current mainstream and alternative styles. IV W

MUS 3864 Theoretical Skills of Music III
Designed for the music major. Emphasis on chromatic harmony as exhibited in the early nineteenth century. Musicianship skills require a greater need for independence of thought and creative development. Lab required. Prerequisites: MUS 1864, 2864. IV

MUS 4864 Theoretical Skills of Music IV
Designed for the music major. Content emphasizes music of the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. Musicianship skills emphasize modal recognition and sight-reading, mixed meter, and awareness of recent sonic developments. Lab required. Prerequisites: MUS 1864, 2864, 3864. IV

MUS 4881 Independent Study in Music
Individual projects designed to give qualified students opportunities for advanced exploration into various areas of music. (1/4 course unit.) May be repeated for credit, provided the subject changes, up to a maximum of 3 course units between 4881, 4882, and 4884. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

MUS 4882 Independent Study in Music
Individual projects designed to give qualified students opportunities for advanced exploration into various areas of music. (1/2 course unit.) May be repeated for credit, provided the subject changes, up to a maximum of 3 course units between 4881, 4882, and 4884. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

MUS 4884 Independent Study in Music
Individual projects designed to give qualified students opportunities for advanced exploration into various areas of music. (1 course unit.) May be repeated for credit, provided the subject changes, up to a maximum of 3 course units between 4881, 4882, and 4884. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

MUS 4951 Senior Recital
Required of all applied music and music education majors. This course will replace one term of enrollment in applied music, and will be taken either in the term prior to or the term of the student's senior recital (depending upon the date of the recital). The course will be team-taught by members of the music faculty, including the student's applied instructor. The course will consist of a combination of the student's regular weekly applied lesson and a weekly seminar. The seminar will provide a structure for the creation of program notes for the senior recital, as well as the development of a professional portfolio. The latter will include a curriculum vita, concert and recital programs, audio- and videotapes of the student129fs performances, samples of class assignments, and other examples of the student's professional achievements. The course grade will be assigned by the applied teacher, in consultation with the other music faculty involved in the seminar, and with one outside auditor to be selected by the program director from persons recommended by the applied instructor. (1/4 or 1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: Senior standing.

MUS 4952 Senior Recital
Required of all applied music and music education majors. This course will replace one term of enrollment in applied music, and will be taken either in the term prior to or the term of the student's senior recital (depending upon the date of the recital). The course will be team-taught by members of the music faculty, including the student's applied instructor. The course will consist of a combination of the student's regular weekly applied lesson and a weekly seminar. The seminar will provide a structure for the creation of program notes for the senior recital, as well as the development of a professional portfolio. The latter will include a curriculum vita, concert and recital programs, audio- and videotapes of the student129fs performances, samples of class assignments, and other examples of the student's professional achievements. The course grade will be assigned by the applied teacher, in consultation with the other music faculty involved in the seminar, and with one outside auditor to be selected by the program director from persons recommended by the applied instructor. (1/4 or 1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: Senior standing.

NS 1034 Medical Illustration
Designed for students interested in art applied to medicine. Content includes chart graphs, pen and ink techniques, and color and half-tone techniques that emphasize muscle structure, bone structure, arteries, veins, cysts, fat, and surgical instruments.

NS 1104 Sight & Sound
An introductory consideration of the physics of light and sound, accompanied by a study of the biological structure and function of the visual and auditory systems. This course is designed for non-science majors, particularly students interested in the basis of sensory understanding. Students will use light and sound as launching points for an understanding of the scientific method and cross-disciplinary approaches to scientific problem solving. II Natural Science

NS 2294 Special Topics in Natural Science
The study of an area or an interdisciplinary subject that is not fully treated in other courses. Intended primarily for May term, the course will vary, depending upon the instructor, special interests, and perceived need. Topics will be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit so long as the topic is different. IV

NS 3124 Special Projects in the Professions
A special off-campus program arranged to meet the needs of the student. For example, students interested in medicine may work with physicians or in hospitals, students interested in veterinary medicine may work with a veterinarian, students interested in marine biology may work in a marine biology station, etc. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

PE 1004 Introduction to Physical Education and Exercise Science
The history, philosophy, and contemporary functions of physical education and exercise science as a profession. Introduction to the field for majors and nonmajors. This course should be taken as early as possible.

PE 1113 Lifetime Fitness
A course combining knowledge and activities that will provide a basis for lifetime physical fitness. (3/4 course unit.) CR/NC grading.

PE 2004 Health Promotion
Introduction to a range of topics related to the health of the individual. Areas of specific emphasis include nutrition and weight management, stress management, substance abuse, and aging. Prerequisite: PE 1113

PE 2014 Team Sports I
The rules, skills, practices, and procedures essential to the teaching and coaching of football, soccer, field hockey, and volleyball. Each student is required to scout, observe, and participate in each sport.

PE 2024 Team Sports II
The rules, skills, practices, and procedures essential to the teaching and coaching of basketball, baseball, softball, and track and field. Each student is required to scout, observe, and participate in each sport.

PE 2034 Individual Sports I
The history, objectives, rules, and fundamentals of selected individual sports. Teaching methods in tennis, golf, gymnastics, racquetball, and handball.

PE 2044 Individual Sports II
The history, objectives, rules, and fundamentals of selected individual sports. Teaching methods in archery, badminton, table tennis, bowling, and fly and bait casting.

PE 2064 Emergency Care and Safety
Designed to prepare an individual to act in an emergency situation. Includes first aid techniques, CPR, rescue moves, and safety awareness. Recommended for education and physical education majors. (Red Cross certifications for Emergency Response and Adult CPR are available through this course.)

PE 2074 The Dance
The study and appreciation of dance as an art concerned with the communication of an idea or feeling through movement.

PE 2094 Anatomy and Physiology I
An introductory consideration of the structure and function of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and cardiovascular systems with particular reference to the human. This course is designed for exercise science majors and students considering an allied health career. It will not count toward the major course requirement of the biology pattern. Lecture and laboratory. Also listed as BIO 2014. Prerequisite: BIO 1044 or 1164. IV

PE 2104 Anatomy and Physiology II
An introductory consideration of the structure and function of the nervous, endocrine, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems with particular reference to the human. This course is designed for exercise science majors and other students interested in an allied health career. The course will not count toward the major course requirements of the biology pattern. Lecture and laboratory. Also listed as BIO 2104. Prerequisite: BIO 1044 or 1164. IV

PE 2294 Special Topics in Physical Education and Exercise Science
The study of a topic or inquiry not fully treated in other courses. Topics may include nutrition and human performance, weight management, exercise testing for normal and special populations, or other allied health areas. Subjects change and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit if topic is different.

PE 3004 Methods in Physical Education
Designed to prepare physical education teachers to teach concepts and activities that lead to positive physical, social, cognitive, and emotional development of learners. Activities for special populations will also be explored. Prerequisite: EDU 2144.

PE 3014 Physiology of Exercise
A study of the human anatomical systems and their physiological function with special emphasis on the muscular, nervous, skeletal, circulatory, and respiratory systems and the acute and chronic adaptations that result from exercise. Other topics also include the physiological effects of physical activity on children, adolescents, older adult women, and health-related conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. Prerequisites: BIO 2014, 2104, PE 2094, 2104.

PE 3034 Athletic Injuries and Rehabilitation
Develops awareness of the injury problems associated with sports participation. Teaches methods of prevention and rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Introduces the athletic training modalities available in a modern trainer's room. Prerequisite: BIO 2014 or PE 2094.

PE 3054 Kinesiology and Biomechanics
Biological and mechanical principles of movement patterns and their application to the evaluation of both the performer and the performance. Prerequisite: BIO 2014.

PE 38 Beginning Yoga
This course description is currently unavailable

PE 4004 Organization, Administration, and Evaluation of Physical Education and Exercise Science
Explores concepts of administration, supervision, and evaluation of physical education and exercise science programs. Prerequisite: PE 1004.

PE 4204 Internship
Supervised placement of students in organizations that provide capstone experiences to the physical education or exercise science major. Integrating theory and practice, this experience includes academic requirements, such as reports and research papers, which will be agreed upon in advance among the student, faculty, and placement supervisor by means of a learning contract.CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

PE 4444 Senior Seminar
Topics include current trends and research methods in exercise science and the allied health field. Team research projects provide the opportunity to integrate previous coursework and to explore new questions.

PHIL 1024 Introduction to Philosophy
An introduction to the methods and viewpoints of philosophy and their applications to the basic questions of life. Not open to seniors. II Humanities

PHIL 1154 Practical Logic
A general course on the methods of logical/critical thinking: principles of reasoning, argument forms, logical models, dialectical techniques, the use of modern symbolic notation, fallacies, and illustrations in applied logic.

PHIL 2004 Feminist Philosophies
Covering authors from the 1700s through the present, this course presents a survey, exploration, and critical assessment of the varieties of philosophical thought orbiting around what have been known as the 'woman question' and 'feminism.' Topics may include educational reform, suffrage, equal rights, psychoanalysis, socialism, radical feminism, post-modernism, and feminist critiques of popular culture. Also listed as WS 2004. IV

PHIL 2084 Environmental Philosophy
A philosophical investigation of conceptions of our relations and responsibilities to the environment. Issues to be explored include animal rights, the preservation of biological diversity, and population control. IVW

PHIL 2164 Bioethics
Study of the value conflicts that arise from developments in biology and medicine. Issues include abortion, euthanasia, medical experimentation, reproductive technologies, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. IVW

PHIL 2294 Special Topics
Exploration of a theme, author, or philosophical movement that may be of special interest but is not fully treated in other courses in the program. Usually offered in May term, with topics announced in advance. Class may be repeated for credit if topic is different. Standard or CR/NC grading. IV

PHIL 2304 Major Thinkers
Exploration of a major philosopher or thinker crucial to the development of philosophy, who may be of special interest to students from varied disciplinary backgrounds, but who is not fully treated in other courses in the program. Special emphasis is placed upon the intensive, historically sensitive reading of the thinker's works in order to understand in detail the interconnections among the various aspects of the thinker's investigations. IV

PHIL 2434 Machine Intelligence
Familiarizes the student with the growing field of artificial intelligence. The course will describe what artificial intelligence is, how it is presently being used, and its future uses. Students will learn to design artificial intelligence systems, such as game systems and production systems. Prerequisite: CS 2044, PHIL 1024, or PSY 1004. Also listed as CS 3434. IV W

PHIL 2504 Ancient Chinese Thought
Between the sixth and the second centuries BCE, China burgeoned with philosophical schools and their texts. Students will read those texts closely and critique them, concentrating especially on the Analects, the Chuang-Tzu, the Mencius, and the Hsun-Tzu. Special emphasis will be placed on how the traditions such texts represent react to each other as they develop increasingly sophisticated defenses of their positions. The course will also attempt to identify, assess, and avoid popular Western readings of the Chinese philosophical tradition by151in part 151incorporating recent historical findings and textual apparatus. Also listed as REL 2504. III A or IV

PHIL 2514 Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy
Examines the dawn of philosophy in ancient Greece: the early natural philosophers, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and the Hellenistic world views; the relationship of philosophy to art and science; and the meanings of Greek philosophical experience for modern times. Standard or CR/NC grading. III B or IV

PHIL 2524 Philosophy of Mind
A study of the development and current status of the concept of mind. The course begins with traditional historical conceptions (dualism, behaviorism, identity theory) and proceeds to an examination of how the disciplines of cognitive science, cognitive ethology, and evolutionary psychology have affected recent thinking on the concept of mind. Special emphasis will be placed on the way in which ideology influences formulations of the mental. IV

PHIL 2534 Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
A survey of the principal philosophical achievements of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The course will address thought developed from the birth of Augustine in 354 to the burning of Giordano Bruno in 1600. The course will explore the Judaic, Islamic, and Christian traditions. Figures covered will include Augustine, Boethius, Avicenna, Anselm, Hildegard von Bingen, Averro235s, Maimonides, Aquinas, Scotus, Ockham, Cusanus, Ficino, Erasmus, Paracelsus, Montaigne, and Bruno. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: PHIL 2514. III B; or IV

PHIL 2554 History of Modern Philosophy
A study of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century philosophers, including the Rationalists, Empiricists, and Kant. Standard or CR/NC grading. III B or IV

PHIL 2614 Animal Minds/Human Values
An examination of human attitudes and obligations to nonhuman animals through an exploration of questions surrounding the existence, kinds, and implications of mental states in non-human animals; the conditions for and implications of ascribing rights to these non-human species; and, overall, the ways in which ideologies such as ecofeminism figure in such arguments. IV

PHIL 3054 Philosophy of Religion
A discussion and lecture course dealing with the intellectual problems of religion (such as those of God, freedom, faith, immortality, evil, and religious knowledge). Time is also given to a study of the various schools of religious philosophy. Also listed as REL 3054. IVW

PHIL 3094 Special Readings in Philosophy
Writing of a philosophical essay based on readings on an approved topic with a given bibliography and tutorial conferences. Prerequisites: One 2000-level PHIL course and permission of instructor.

PHIL 3114 Political Theory I: Classical and Medieval
An examination of the foundations of the Western political tradition in Greek, Roman, and medieval thought. Focusing attention upon such major figures as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Machiavelli, Luther, and Calvin, explores the major questions and problems of political theory. Also listed as PS 3114. IV

PHIL 3124 Political Theory II: Modern
Surveys the development of political theory in the modern and contemporary periods, focusing on such major figures as Hobbes, Locke, Hegel, Marx, Sartre, Marcuse, and others. A chronological and logical extension of PHIL/PS 3114, but PHIL/PS 3114 is not a prerequisite. Also listed as PS 3124. IV

PHIL 3144 Existentialism
An exploration of the nature and meaning of existentialism as it has developed in philosophy and theology and in their interactions. Prerequisite: One 2000 level PHIL course. IVW

PHIL 3214 Social Theory of Karl Marx
An examination of the critical and humanistic foundations of Marx's theory of society and politics. The course will focus topically on the major components of Marx's thought, including human nature, social relations, alienation, exploitation, the historical development of capitalist society, the role of the state and ideology, and visions of future society. Also listed as PS 3214. Prerequisite: PS 1004 or PHIL 1024. IV

PHIL 3404 Epistemology
An examination of traditional questions of knowledge, truth, and meaning especially as they are challenged by versions of skepticism and relativism. Special attention will be given to recent controversies, such as the realism-antirealism debate in philosophy of science, feminist critiques of rationality, and the plausibility of 'naturalized' epistemology. Prerequisite: One 2000-level PHIL course. IV W

PHIL 3414 Ethical Theory
An examination of several responses to the questions 'How should I act?' and 'What sort of person should I be?' The course will consider classical ethical theories, including those of Aristotle, Mill, and Kant, as well as recent challenges from virtue theory and feminist ethics. Prerequisite: one 2000-level PHIL course. IV W

PHIL 3424 Metaphysics
Personal identity, causation, mind and body, numbers, free will-all of these and more are subjects which are studied in metaphysics. Students will conduct philosophical inquiries concerning a selection of these topics and will learn why the study of metaphysics is important not only to philosophy but also to a great many other disciplines (e.g., physics, psychology, and mathematics). Prerequisite: one 2000-level PHIL course. IVW

PHIL 3534 Black Feminist Theory
Examines critical and theoretical issues in Black feminism from the 19C to the present, focusing on the influential contemporary black feminist intellectual tradition that emerged in the 1970s. From this perspective, students will explore certain themes and topics, such as work, family, politics, and community, through reading the writings of Black feminists. We will also study the ways in which women and men have worked together, towards the eradication of race and gender inequality, among other systems of oppression, which have historically subjugated Black women. Although emphasis will be placed on Black feminist traditions in the United States and Britain, at the end of the semester we will consider Black feminism in global perspecitive. Prerequisite: WS 1004 or PHIL 2004/WS 2004, or permisison of instructor. Also listed as WS 3534. III B or IV.

PHIL 3554 Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
One of the most creative and transformative centuries in the history of Western philosophy, thinkers of this age aimed to reenvision the philosophical project as a whole. Readings in Fichte, Schopenhauer, Feuerbach, Marx, Kierkegaard, Mill and Nitzsche will be introduced and contextualized by substantial readings from Hegel. Prerequisite: one 200-level PHIL course. IV

PHIL 4014 Recent Philosophy
Astudy of Western philosophical developments since the beginning of the twentieth century. The course will address principal currents in Continental as well as Anglo-American philosophy. Movements addressed may include psychoanalysis, Marxism, positivism, semiotics, phenomenology, existentialism, hermeneutics, pragmatism, post-structuralism, and analytic philosophy. Prerequisite: PHIL 2514 or 2554. IVW

PHIL 4204 Internship in Philosophy
The practical application of philosophy skills in education, law, medicine, or other areas. Students choose an appropriate organization in consultation with faculty member who supervises the work. One course credit may be counted toward major. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Five course units in philosophy and permission of instructor.

PHIL 4444 Senior Seminar
Extensive examination of selected philosophical topics. Preparation, presentation, and revision of senior projects. Prerequisite: Senior major in philosophy. IV

PHIL 4904 Senior Honors
Independent study of a philosophic problem involving regular conferences with the instructor andwriting of a philosophic essay. (1 or 2 course units.) Prerequisites: Senior standing, at least a 3.5 grade point average in philosophy, presentation of an acceptable project proposal, and permission of instructor.

PHIL 4908 Senior Honors
Independent study of a philosophic problem involving regular conferences with the instructor and writing of a philosophic essay. (1 or 2 course units.) Prerequisites: Senior standing, at least a 3.5 grade point average in philosophy, presentation of an acceptable project proposal, and permission of instructor.

PHYS 1014 Conceptual Physics
A qualitative introduction to the basic principles and ideas of mechanics, heat, thermodynamics, waves, electricity, magnetism, and optics. Demonstrations, exercises, and experiments will be used to construct the fundamental concepts. Emphasis will be placed on verbal interpretation, arithmetical reasoning, functional reasoning, and graphical interpretation. There will be some quantitative and algebraic interpretation. The course is designed for all students. Lecture and laboratory. II Natural Science

PHYS 1024 Measuring the Universe
An investigation of the methods used by cosmologists to determine the sizes and ages of our solar system, galaxy, and universe. Students will study gravity, light, optics (including telescopes), the formation of stars and black holes, Doppler shifts, and the expansion of the universe. II Natural Science

PHYS 2115 University Physics I
A calculus-based introduction to mechanics and thermodynamics. Fundamental principles such as energy and momentum conservation are stressed. The development of problem-solving skills is also emphasized. This is a required course for physics, chemistry, biology, and preengineering majors. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 1304. II Natural Science or IV

PHYS 2125 University Physics II
A continuation of PHYS 2115. The fundamental concepts of electricity, magnetism, and optics will be developed in a calculus environment. Continued stress on problem-solving skills. Required for physics, chemistry, biology, and pre-engineering majors. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: PHYS 2115. IV

PHYS 2154 Modern Physics I
An elementary introduction to Einstein's theory of special relativity with emphasis on Lorentz transformations between inertial frames of reference. Fundamental relations in mechanics and electricity and magnetism are presented, along with applications of relativity to the study of particle interactions. This is followed by a survey of nuclear and elementary particle physics. Prerequisite: PHYS 2125. IV

PHYS 2164 Modern Physics II
An elementary presentation of quantum physics, followed by applications to atoms and molecules, as well as an introduction to statistical mechanics. Prerequisite: PHYS 2125. IV

PHYS 2404 Optics
A study of geometrical, physical, and modern optics. Emphasis on the electromagnetic wave nature of light and the particle nature of light, photons. Topics include reflection and refraction, lenses, optical instruments, interference, diffraction, polarization, spectroscopy, lasers, and laser light. Prerequisite: PHYS 2125. IV

PHYS 2444 Special Topics in Physics
Exploration of a theme or physical theory that may be of special interest, but is not fully treated in other courses in the program. Usually offered in May term, with topics announced in advance. Prerequisite: PHYS 2125 or permission of instructor. IV

PHYS 3014 Classical Mechanics
A study of the statics and dynamics of mechanical systems of interest to engineering and physics majors. Includes study of kinematics and dynamics presented in various reference frames, coordinate transformations between frames, rotation of rigid bodies, moments of inertia, spinning tops, conservation laws, central forces, and introductory Lagrangian mechanics. Prerequisite: PHYS 2125. IV

PHYS 3054 Electricity and Magnetism
Intermediate mathematical treatment of electric and magnetic fields and potentials. Electric and magnetic properties of matter, circuits, introduction to Maxwell's equations, radiation, and physical optics. Prerequisites: PHYS 2154, MATH 2144. IV

PHYS 3101 Research in Physics
A laboratory course designed to acquaint the student with the techniques and equipment used for experimental research in atomic and molecular collisions. Topics include building scientific apparatus, high vacuum systems, single particle counting techniques, electron optics, electronics, and methods of data analysis. (1/4 course unit.) CR/NC grading. May be repeated once. Prerequisite: PHYS 2125.

PHYS 4064 Quantum Mechanics
Introduces the postulates of quantum mechanics and develops the Schroedinger equation along with angular momentum theory and perturbation techniques. Cases of special interest are studied including the hydrogen atom, the harmonic oscillator, and the Born approximation for two body collisions. Prerequisite: PHYS 2164. IV

PHYS 4102 Senior Research in Physics
Acapstone laboratory course involving independent research in atomic and molecular collisions. Students will typically modify existing apparatus and perform new measurements. Results will be presented in a formal paper. (1/2 course unit.) Prerequisite: PHYS 3101.

PHYS 4214 Independent Study in Physics
Study of a topic chosen by the student in consultation with a professor. The topic should be appropriate for an undergraduate major in content and level of difficulty, but should also be one that is not covered in other courses. Major pattern elective in physics. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Determined by topic.

PS 1004 Introduction to Politics
Provides an introduction to the world of politics by comparing different political systems and political ideologies. II Social Science

PS 1014 Introduction to U.S. Politics
A study of the organization and operation of the national government, the principles underlying our system, the complexity of big government, and the importance of national policy in individual daily life. II Social Science

PS 1024 U.S. State and Urban Politics
A study of the organization and operation of state and local governments and an examination of politics in these areas. The focus will be comparative.

PS 1054 Globalization & Civic Responsibility
An examination of the complex processes of globalization and its political, economic, and social impact on the individual. Focus is on the concept of human rights and how individuals as human beings determine their allegiances (as members of communities, citizens of the state, or the global community), in response to the various impacts of globalization. II Social Science

PS 2194 International Politics
An examination of the interaction processes and structural factors of the international political system that affect the behavior of states. The role of diplomacy, international law and organizations, and war in the international system. Traces changes in the international system and the development of Soviet-American relations in the postwar period. IV

PS 2204 Canadian Parliamentary Internship
Students will work for five weeks as interns in the office of a member of the Canadian House of Commons or Senate, conducting research on public policy and attending committee meetings, party caucuses, and press conferences while living at the University of Ottawa. CR/NC grading. Pre-requisite: PS 1004.

PS 2224 Research Methods for the Social Sciences
An examination of the interaction processes and structural factors of the international political system which affect the behavior of states. The role of diplomacy, international law and organizations, and war in the international system. Traces changes in the international system and the development of Soviet-American relations in the postwar period. IV

PS 2234 Statistical Analysis for the Social Sciences
An introduction to and practice in using and evaluating quantitative analysis in the social sciences. Coverage includes univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analytic techniques. Focus on proper use and interpretation of these techniques. Computation will be performed on computer. No mathematical or computer background is necessary. Also listed as PSY 2234 and SOC 2234. IV

PS 2294 Special Topics in Political Science
The study of an area of inquiry in political science not fully treated in other courses. Topics may change from term to term and are announced in advance. May be repeated for credit as long as the topic is different. IV

PS 2304 Politics and Society of Japan
An investigation of the society and politics of Japan. Examines the historical development of the principal social institutions of Japan, including its cultural and ideological transformations. Surveys the major components of politics, economics, and government, the processes of elite and mass participation, and the important socioeconomic and political personalities, issues, and problems currently facing the country. Also listed as ANTH 2314. III A or IV

PS 2324 Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa
A comparative study of selected Sub-Saharan African political systems. Examines the domestic and international politics of the states in the region. Investigates such topics as the legacies of the colonial experience, the growth of nationalism, the impact of communal identities, the role of indigenous cultures, the problems of social and economic development, and the prospects for democracy. May be used to fulfill comparative government requirement in political science major pattern. III A or IV

PS 2504 Politics of the Middle East
Regional and international dimensions of politics and society in the Middle East and North Africa. Areas of study include the formation of nation-states; nationalism; the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Palestinian question; Islamic revival and political development; and the prospects for stability or change in the region. III A or IV

PS 3044 Modern Political Concepts, Methodology, and Analysis
Designed to acquaint the student with the variety of political concepts, methods, and analytical systems used in political science. Required of all majors in political science, who should plan to take it in their junior year. Prerequisites: PS 1004, 1014, and a course in comparative politics. IV

PS 3114 Political Theory I: Classical and Medieval
An examination of the foundations of the Western political tradition in Greek, Roman, and medieval thought. Focusing attention upon such major figures as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Machiavelli, Luther, and Calvin, explores the major questions and problems of political theory. Also listed as PHIL 3114. IV

PS 3124 Political Theory II: Modern
Surveys the development of political theory in the modern and contemporary periods, focusing on such major figures as Hobbes, Locke, Hegel, Marx, Sartre, Marcuse, and others. A chronological and logical extension of PS/PHIL 3114, but PS/PHIL 3114 is not a prerequisite. Also listed as PHIL 3124. IV

PS 3134 Congress and the Presidency
Describes and analyzes congressional and presidential elections and operations and congressional-presidential relations. Prerequisite: PS 1014. IV

PS 3144 The Legal System
Describes and analyzes the principal elements of the U.S. legal system, including state and federal courts, related legal institutions, and major civil and criminal legal standards. Prerequisite: PS 1014. IV

PS 3174 American Constitutional Development
A study of the historical origins and creation of the American Constitution and an examination of its development and modification since 1789, as seen through historical events and Supreme Court decisions. IV

PS 3214 Social Thoery of Karl Marx
An examination of the critical and humanistic foundations of Marx's theory of society and politics. The course will focus topically on the major components of Marx's thought, including human nature, social relations, alienation, exploitation, the historical development of capitalist society, the role of the state and ideology, and visions of future society. Also listed as PHIL 3214. Prerequisite: PS 1004 or PHIL 1024. IV

PS 3234 The International System
An examination of international relations from the 'system' level of analysis. The course will survey the historical and prospective evolution of the state-centric international system. It will investigate the interconnection between economics and politics as related aspects of a worldwide process of accumulating and distributing wealth and power. Prerequisite: PS 2194. IV

PS 3294 Special Topics in Political Science
Advanced coursework that treats with greater depth topics covered in other courses in political science. Topics may change from term to term and are announced in advance. While prerequisites will be expected, they will vary depending on course topic. May be repeated for credit as long as the topic is different. IV

PS 3314 Political Development
Examines the political problems of the developing states of Africa, Asia, and Latin America in a multidisciplinary context. Analyzes the process of development in terms of the interrelated political, economic, cultural, and social dimensions that affect it. Specific in-depth study of a few representative nations supplements the study of the general development process. Prerequisite: PS 1004 or permission of instructor. IVW

PS 3334 Politics of Russia
An investigation of the domestic politics and foreign affairs of Russia and the newly independent states of Eurasia. Examines the role of ideology, historical evolution, economic development, imperial experiences, ethnic and national conflicts, legacies of totalitarian dictatorship, and the prospects for democracy in the post-Soviet period. Surveys the major institutions of government, processes of elite and mass participation, and important current political personalities, issues, and problem areas in contemporary Russia and the former Soviet republics. Prerequisite: PS 1004 or permission of instructor. IVW

PS 3568 The Kentucky Legislative Process
A two-unit course designed to acquaint students with the political dimensions of the General Assembly. In addition to weekly seminars and lectures, interns will work a minimum of 30 hours per week with experienced participants in the legislative process. Prerequisite: PS 1024 and permission of program director.

PS 3584 Research in Kentucky Politics
Preparation of a major paper on some aspect of Kentucky politics related to the experiences of the intern with the General Assembly. Topic is to be chosen in consultation with a faculty member in an appropriate discipline. Prerequisite: PS 1024 and permission of program director.

PS 3704 Directed Study in Political Science
Allows students to supplement their study of political science in areas not covered by existing course offerings. The project must be approved by all program faculty members prior to the student's registration for the course. The directed study will be executed under the supervision of the appropriate faculty member. Prerequisites: Five courses in political science, junior standing, 3.0 grade point average overall and in major courses, and permission of the program faculty.

PS 4202 Internship in Political Science
A course offering supervised placements in legal, political, and governmental organizations. Substantive area of internship and course format chosen in consultation with program faculty. (1/2 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: PS 1004, 1014, and permission of instructor.

PS 4204 Internship in Political Science
Offers supervised placements in legal, political, and governmental organizations. Substantive area of internship and course format chosen in consultation with program faculty. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: PS 1004, 1014, and permission of instructor.

PS 4444 Senior Seminar
The culminating experience for the major in political science. Integrates theoretical, methodological, normative, and analytical aspects of the discipline. IV

PS 4904 Senior Honors
Provides an opportunity for the qualified political science major to do independent work in the field under the supervision of a faculty member. Asenior who has taken seven courses in political science and who has a 3.0 grade point average overall and in major courses may apply to enter the program by submitting a project proposal and securing the permission of the faculty. The student may receive credit for either 1 or 2 course units, depending on the project, but may not receive credit for more than 1 course unit per term.

PSY 1004 General Psychology
This course is a prerequisite to all other psychology courses. A combined theoretical, experimental, and clinical approach to the science of human behavior. An introduction to the rudiments of psychology from a social science perspective. II Social Science

PSY 2001 Introduction to Psychological Research
An introduction to psychological research by collaborating on a research project of a faculty member or student, under faculty supervision. (1/4 course unit.) Course may be repeated twice for credit. Prerequisites: PSY 1004 and permission of instructor.

PSY 2024 Experimental: Sensation and Perception
Introduction to design, methods, and theory in experimental psychology; consideration of critical experiments and research methodology in the study of sensory and perceptual processes. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IVW

PSY 2034 Experimental Psychology of Learning
Survey of research design, method, and theory in the study of learning and motivation. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IVW

PSY 2054 Theories of Personality
A study of the development, structure, and dynamics of the personality. Major contemporary theories are surveyed with comparative and critical treatment. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 2114 Human Development: Conception to Adolescence
Covers the physical, social, cognitive, and emotional development of individuals from conception to adolescence. The major theories and research methods used in lifespan developmental psychology will be explored. The complexity of child development will be illustrated through the examination of current research in the field. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IVW

PSY 2124 Human Development: Adulthood and Aging
Covers the physical, social, cognitive, and emotional development changes of humans from early adulthood through old age and death. Also covers the grieving process after a loved one dies. Theories and research methods used in lifespan developmental psychology will be used to examine the complexity of adult development. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IVW

PSY 2224 Research Methods for Psychology
Introduction to the major aspects and issues of the research processes in psychology. Includes examination of selecting research problems, operationalizing concepts, research design, methods of observation and analysis, reporting results, and ethical issues in research. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 2234 Statistical Analysis for the Social Sciences
An introduction to and practice in using and evaluating quantitative analysis in the social sciences. Coverage includes univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analytic techniques. Focus on proper use and interpretation of these techniques. Computation will be performed on computer. No mathematical or computer background is necessary. Prerequisites: PSY 1004 and PSY 2024, 2034, or 2224. Also listed as PS 2234 and SOC 2234. IV

PSY 2294 Special Topics in Psychology
An introduction to selected topics in psychology focusing on concepts and methods used by psychologists. Topics may include gerontology, neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, states of consciousness, and writings of major psychological theorists. Directed by a faculty member having specific competence in the topic under study. May be repeated for credit as long as the topic is different. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 2304 Evolutionary Psychology
An examination of the contribution of evolutionary history to human behavior. Evaluates the extent to which current behavioral phenomena can be explained by human evolution, by current cultural trends, or by a combination of the two, and explores the role that ideology plays in interpreting behavior. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 2504 Human Sexuality
Explores the psychological and physiological aspects of human sexual behavior. Emphasis is placed on the cultural and biological diversity of sexual expression. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. Also listed as WS 2554. IV

PSY 2524 Psychology of Women
Provides students with an overview of psychological research and theory on women and gender. The course provides analysis of the myths and stereotypes associated with women and men in society, the social and psychological gender differences that have been identified in the research, and the evidence and theoretical arguments concerning the origin of these differences. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. Also listed as WS 2524. IV

PSY 3004 Social Psychology
An overview of theory and research in social psychology. Topics include the self, social perception, conformity, attitudes and attitude changes, prejudice, aggression, altruism, interpersonal attraction, and intergroup conflict. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 3034 Psychological Testing
The methods, assumptions, and problems involved in psychological measurement and personality evaluation. Anumber of representative tests are used to study the underlying rationale for psychological testing and the construction, administration, interpretation, and evaluation of psychological tests. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 3044 Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Applications of psychology in organizations. Attention to topics such as motivation, leadership, personnel selection and training, job analysis, human relations, human engineering, and the psychology of organizations. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 3054 History of Psychology
A survey of the major historical antecedents of contemporary psychology, with emphasis on the development of systematic viewpoints in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IVW

PSY 3124 Abnormal Psychology
A study of psychopathology considering possible cause of emotional disturbances, with techniques of diagnosis and theory employed. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IVW

PSY 3304 Biopsychology
A survey of biological mechanisms underlying behavior. Topics to be covered include brain anatomy and physiology, physiological processes underlying psychological and neurological disorders, effects of drugs on brain function, physiology of emotions and motivation, and hormonal influences on behavior. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IVW

PSY 3354 Behavioral Pharmacology
A study of the use and abuse of psychoactive drugs. Presents basic principles of pharmacology. Surveys the drugs used to treat psychological and neurological disorders. Also covers the recreational use of drugs and the problems associated with drug addiction and rehabilitation. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. IV

PSY 4004 Independent Research
Individual faculty supervision of student research. Course may be repeated once for credit. Students taking Independent Research for two terms may apply only one unit toward the 11 units required for the major. Prerequisites: PSY 1004, major in psychology, and permission of instructor.

PSY 4014 Theories of Psychotherapy
A survey of the basic principles and theories of psychotherapy and an introduction to counseling techniques. Prerequisites: PSY 1004, PSY 3124, and permission of instructor. IVW

PSY 4024 Developmental Psychopathology
Covers the major psychological and behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Issues related to the etiology, conceptualization, course, and treatment of childhood maladaptation will be examined. Prerequisites: PSY 1004 and 2114. IV W

PSY 4034 Issues
Different resource materials will be used to provide a basis for discussion of controversial topics in psychology that cover a gamut of interests. Audiotapes, videotapes, writings, and other materials are used. May be repeated once for credit. Standard or CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: PSY 1004, major in psychology, junior or senior standing, or special permission of instructor. IV

PSY 4204 Internship in Psychology
Supervised placement of students in organizations or industries employing professional psychologists. Provides students with the opportunity to see how psychology is practiced in the community and lets them apply material from their courses in a work setting. An academic requirement relating psychological theory to practice is included in the internship. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: PSY 1004 and 4 units in psychology.

PSY 4444 Senior Seminar in Psychology
The culminating experience for the psychology major, designed to integrate and advance knowledge gained from previous courses. A systematic examination of significant current issues in theory, research, and application. Prerequisites: PSY 1004, major in psychology, and senior standing. IVW

PSY 4904 Senior Honors in Psychology
A creative exploration in psychology. Students pursue an area of interest to satisfy their own intellectual curiosity and to challenge and expand their knowledge of psychology. (1 course unit.) Prerequisites: PSY 1004, senior standing, a major in psychology, permission of instructor, 3.5 grade point average in major, and a 3.0 overall grade point average.

PSY 4908 Senior Honors in Psychology
A creative exploration in psychology. Students pursue an area of interest to satisfy their own intellectual curiosity and to challenge and expand their knowledge of psychology. (2 course units.) Prerequisites: PSY 1004, senior standing, a major in psychology, permission of instructor, 3.5 grade point average in major, and a 3.0 overall grade point average.

PSY 4912 Senior Honors in Psychology
A creative exploration in psychology. Students pursue an area of interest to satisfy their own intellectual curiosity and to challenge and expand their knowledge of psychology. (3 course units.) Prerequisites: PSY 1004, senior standing, a major in psychology, permission of instructor, 3.5 grade point average in major, and a 3.0 overall grade point average.

REL 1014 Introduction to Religion
An introduction to and exploration of what 'religion' means, what it means to live religiously, and what it means to study religion from an academic perspective. Areas of focus include (but are not limited to) notions of the sacred as manifested in symbol, myth, doctrine, text, and ritual. II Humanities

REL 1054 Judaeo-Christian Heritage
Asurvey of the historical development of the Jewish and Christian religions and their relationship to one another from the first century of the common era to the present. II Humanities or III B

REL 2024 The Bible
An examination of the development and meaning of the Hebrew and Christian scriptures. By reading the biblical text critically and appreciatively, students better understand the Bible151its content, its cultural environment, its vision of life, and its relevance for today. IVW

REL 2122 Religious Biography
A study and evaluation of selected figures in religion. The intention is to discern the interrelatedness of religious and personal formation in the development of thought and in action. (1/2 course unit.)

REL 2134 Foundations of Asian Religions
An introductory course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the ideas and practices that shape several Asian religious traditions. Focuses primarily on Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist traditions; attention also given to Jain, Sikh, and Shinto traditions. III A or IV

REL 2154 Gender Roles in Religious Life
An exploration of the relationships and roles of women and men in the context of religious life, paying attention to the way male perspectives have dominated many areas of formal religious discourse, but also noting the dissenting voices of women often hidden in alternative forms of expression. After reviewing selected contemporary theories about the evolution of gender roles and the dynamics of gender relationships, the course will focus on the Christian and Hindu traditions, and then conclude by examining selected writings from other traditions. IVW

REL 2204 Christian Worship
An introduction to the nature and history of Christian worship, with an overview of the basic elements of Christian worship and how they shape the Christian identity. Particular focus on the development and ongoing practice of baptism and eucharist (Lord's Supper) in the church. Course enables students to locate and appreciate individual traditions within the larger and inclusive liturgical tradition. IV W

REL 2294 Special Topics in Religion
The study of a seminal figure, school of thought, era, issue, or topic of interdisciplinary interest not fully treated in other courses. Topics will be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit as long as the topic is different. IV

REL 2304 Major Thinkers
The exploration of a major theologian or thinker crucial to the development of a religious school of thought, seminal idea, or doctrine in a particular religious tradition, who is not fully treated in other courses. May be repeated for credit as long as the designated thinker is different. IV

REL 2314 Biblical History and Archaeology
An examination of the historical and archaeological records of the ancient Near East that relate to the Biblical period (circa 1800 BCE to 135 CE). Students will gain an understanding of how the study of history and archaeology affects the interpretation of the Bible. IV

REL 2324 Journey Through the Bible
An examination of the history, geography, and archaeology of the Biblical world (circa 1800 BCE to 135 CE) by studying and traveling to the land of the Bible (Israel). This is a May term travel course. IV

REL 2344 Jewish-Christian Relations
Examines the tragic and bloodstained history of the relationship of Christianity-beginning with its inception as a Jewish sect and culminating in the Holocaust-to Judaism. Two questions will frame our thought: How is it that a Jewish sect, whose founder was a Jewish rabbi, had within less than a century become avidly and outspokenly anti-Jewish? Was the Holocaust an inevitable consequence of the long, entrenched Christian tradition of anti-Judaism? IV

REL 2414 The Hebrew Bible
An examination of the collection of literature that is called the Hebrew Bible (Tanak) in the Jewish tradition and the Old Testament in the Christian tradition. Students will gain an understanding of Israelite history, major religious ideas of the text, and knowledge of and experience in interpreting the Hebrew Bible both critically and appreciatively. Must have at least sophomore standing. IV

REL 2424 The New Testament
An examination of the collection of 27 books that is called the New Testament by the Christian tradition. Students will gain an understanding of the formation of the early church, major religious ideas of the text, and knowledge of and experience in interpreting the New Testament both critically and appreciatively. Must have at least sophomore standing. IV

REL 2504 Ancient Chinese Thought
Between the sixth and the second centuries BCE, China burgeoned with philosophical schools and their texts. Students will read those texts closely and critique them, concentrating especially on the Analects, the Chuang-Tzu, the Mencius, and the Hsun-Tzu. Special emphasis will be placed on how the traditions such texts represent react to each other as they develop increasingly sophisticated defenses of their positions. The course will also attempt to identify, assess, and avoid popular Western readings of the Chinese philosophical tradition by incorporating recent historical findings and textual apparatus. Also listed as PHIL 2504. III A or IV

REL 2524 Islamic Religious Traditions
An exploration of Islamic identity, religious expressions, and institutions. Topics of study include the life of Muhammad, the nature and teachings of the Qur'an, and Islamic sectarian identities. III A or IV

REL 2534 Hindu Religious Traditions
A survey of the history, practices, ideas, and social institutions associated with the variety of Hindu religious traditions. Students will learn about the Indus Valley civilization and the Aryan settlement of the Indian subcontinent. Discussions will focus on the development of classical Hindu India. Students will read foundational texts in English translation as well as selections from modern Indian thinkers such as Aurobindo, Radhakrishnan, Vivekananda, Gandhi, and Ambedkar. III A or IV W

REL 2544 Buddhist Religious Traditions
An examination of the philosophical and historical roots of classical Buddhism, its sectarian developments, and its spread from India to other countries. Topics of study include the life of Guatama; the nature of suffering, of the self, and of mind; gender issues in the religious community; and the nature of devotion. III A or IV W

REL 3024 The Synoptic Gospels
Through a systematic reading of the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke), students will develop critical skills in analyzing and appreciating these canonical texts. The synoptic problem, redaction criticism, and the unique theological perspective of each Gospel will be highlighted. IV

REL 3054 Philosophy of Religion
A discussion and lecture course dealing with the intellectual problems of religion (such as those of God, freedom, faith, immortality, evil, and religious knowledge). Time is also given to a study of the various schools of religious philosophy. Also listed as PHIL 3054. IVW

REL 3074 Christian Theological Reflection
Primarily designed to encourage theological reflection about the Christian faith by acquainting students with several of the classic doctrines (God, Christ, Holy Spirit, and Church), by reading representative theologians (Augustine, Aquinas, Calvin, Schleiermacher, and Barth) who have significantly shaped the development of those doctrines, and by constructing theological arguments. IVW

REL 3214 Quest for the Historical Jesus
An exploration of the perennial question that Christians, or any reader of the Gospels, must ask: Who is Jesus? After reading portraits of the historical Jesus proposed by representative scholars of the 'third quest for the historical Jesus' (from the 1980s to the present), their responses will be examined and evaluated. IV

REL 3234 The Sacred Quest
Examines various types of quest and the roles these journeys play in the formation of identity. Topics include the structure and role of initiation rites, the functions of religious communities, and the lives of religious virtuosos such as mendicants and shamans. Also listed as ANTH 3234. IV

REL 3454 The Gospel of John
Through a systematic reading of the Gospel of John, students develop critical skills in analyzing and appreciating the biblical text. John's unique literary and theological perspective and the distinctions between John and the other gospels will be highlighted. IV

REL 4014 Independent Study
Readings on an approved topic. The student will submit an evaluative paper. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

REL 4204 Internship
Internship experience. The student will submit an evaluative paper. CR/NC grading. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

REL 4444 Seminar in Religious Studies
A seminar designed to encourage student initiative, research, and responsibility in probing, independently and with others, the vital areas of the study of religion. Topics change each time the seminar is offered and are arranged to include concentration on theological, ethical, biblical, historical, ecumenical, interdisciplinary, and intercultural concerns. May be repeated for credit. IV

REL 4904 Senior Honors in Religion
Independent study on a given problem chosen in consultation with the instructor, with tutorial conferences. (1 course units.) Prerequisites: Senior standing, 3.3 grade point average in major courses, at least 4.5 course units in religion, and permission of instructor.

REL 4908 Senior Honors in Religion
Independent study on a given problem chosen in consultation with the instructor, with tutorial conferences. (2 course units.) Prerequisites: Senior standing, 3.3 grade point average in major courses, at least 4.5 course units in religion, and permission of instructor.

REL 4912 Senior Honors in Religion
Independent study on a given problem chosen in consultation with the instructor, with tutorial conferences. (3 course units.) Prerequisites: Senior standing, 3.3 grade point average in major courses, at least 4.5 course units in religion, and permission of instructor.

SOC 1004 Introduction to Sociology
An introduction to the sociological perspective on social life. Focuses on the relations between the individual and social forces, identity and socialization, deviance, group dynamics, social institutions, and social change, including coverage of the major forms of social inequality. II Social Science

SOC 1054 Cultural Geography
Provides an introduction to the study of spatial distributions of people on earth, including population trends, migration, land-use, urbanism, and changing global systems. This is an introductory course without prerequisites. Also listed as ANTH 1044. III A

SOC 2224 Research Methods for the Social Sciences
Introduction to the major aspects of the social science research process, including ethical issues in research, problem selection, operationalizing concepts, research design, population sampling, methods of data collection and analysis, and reporting findings. Prerequisite: Any introductory social science course. Also listed as PS 2224. IVW

SOC 2234 Statistical Analysis for the Social Sciences
An introduction to and practice in using and evaluating quantitative analysis in the social sciences. Coverage includes univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analytic techniques. Focus on proper use and interpretation of these techniques. Computation will be performed on computer. No mathematical or computer background is necessary. Prerequisite: Sociology 2224. Also listed as PS 2234 and PSY 2234. IV

SOC 2244 Social Problems
An introduction to the nature, causes, and possible solutions to important social problems. Problems studied typically will include various forms of social inequality, crime, drug abuse, domestic violence, environmental pollution, and war. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. IV

SOC 2314 Sociology of Race and Ethnicity
An examination of the history, causes, and dynamics of relations between the numerous ethnoracial groups in the United States. Topics range from the processes of identifying minority status, ethnoracial group identity, discriminatory behavior, and structured inequality to proposed changes for the future. Prerequisite: SOC 1004, ANTH 1024, or permission of instructor. IVW

SOC 2344 Social Interaction
A micro-sociological examination of the impact of socio-cultural environment on the social self, on interpersonal interaction, and on the structure and dynamics of primary and small groups. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. IV

SOC 2414 Sociology of Gender
Intensive study of how social relations between males and females are organized, lived, and understood in the United States, with some emphasis on historical and cross-cultural comparison. Topics include gender socialization, masculinity and femininity, gender at work and in the family, and sex and gender inequality and change. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. Also listed as WS 2414. IV W

SOC 2444 Deviance, Disorder, and Conflict
A critical examination of those aspects of society that are not orderly, patterned, and predictable--specifically, deviant behavior. Causal theories explaining deviance/disorder will be emphasized along with the power dynamics involved in defining this disapproved realm. An in-depth investigation of select examples of 'alternative' social behaviors will be included. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. IV W

SOC 2514 Human Service Organizations
An introduction to the goals, structure, administration, and policy issues of human services including social welfare, health, education, and criminal justice. Includes observation in local agencies. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. IV

SOC 2614 Sociology of Mass Media
An overview of the institution of mass media and communication. Topics include the structure of mass media ownership, the types, uses, and effects of mass media, and current debates about the influence of mass media on social life. Prerequisite: Sociology 1004 or permission of instructor. IVW

SOC 2644 Social Change and Social Movements
A wide-ranging examination of the history, causes, and dynamics of social change and social movements. Emphasis is placed on analyzing and interpreting changes and movements in the past 200 years, with special focus on current movements as they respond to the results of past and present social dynamics. Prerequisite: SOC 1004 or PS 1004 or 1014. IV

SOC 2814 The Family - Past, Present, and Future
An examination of the family as a major social institution, including the development of family norms and values, the ideology of love, sex-role socialization, courtship and marriage, parenting, and alternatives to the traditional form. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. IVW

SOC 2934 Gender, Culture, and the Social Body
Investigates sociological and anthropological perspectives on the body. Topics include an analysis of body modification and alteration, (diet, exercise, bodybuilding, scarification), and bodily decoration (tattooing, body paint, jewelry, ceremonial clothing). The course poses questions such as: How are issues of power and domination written into cultural scripts about ideal forms? How does bodily decoration convey gendered meanings and statuses? Explores how processes of development and capitalism have transformed understandings and attitudes about beauty, clothing, and the 'ideal' body. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or SOC 1004. Also listed as ANTH 2934 and WS 2934. IV

SOC 3104 Social Theory
In-depth, critical examination of the major schools of social theorizing, including symbolic interactionism, structural functionalism, and Marxism and conflict theory. Includes recent attempts to synthesize strands of modern theory and postmodern theory. Prerequisites: SOC 1004 and two 2000-level sociology courses or permission of instructor. IV

SOC 3134 Topics in Sociology
In-depth study of a selected topic area of sociology. May be repeated for credit as long as the topic is different. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. IV

SOC 3214 Criminal Justice System
Focuses first upon the 'traditional' processes by which behaviors are defined as illegal; citizens' behavior is monitored to enforce the definitions; the official labels are applied to specific individuals; and perpetrators of the labeled behaviors are responded to. A 'critical' approach then extends the analysis to issues of political manipulations and corruption in the legislative, adjudicative, and enforcement processes, as well as the counterproductive nature of the U.S. corrections system. Prerequisite: SOC 1004 and 2444. IV

SOC 3244 Social Inequality and Stratification
Analysis of evidence and theories of current forms of social differentiation, including status, class, ethnoracial, gender, political, and life chance inequalities. Topics include poverty and social mobility, interrelations of different forms of inequality, stasis and change in stratification systems, and proposals for redressing illegitimate forms of social inequality. Prerequisites: SOC 1004 and two 2000-level sociology courses or permission of instructor. IVW

SOC 3314 Sociology of Medicine
An investigation of the sociological factors involved in the causes, treatments, and outcomes of physical and emotional illness as well as an analysis of the structure and processes of the U.S. healthcare delivery system. Prerequisites: Sociology 1004 and two 2000-level sociology courses or permission of instructor. IVW

SOC 3404 Sustainable Development
Explores the concept of sustainable development, from the beginning of the era of international development following WWII to the present. The course explores the challenges involved in creating sustainable development, from the socio-cultural issues and environmental concerns to the definition of sustainability. Case studies will help highlight these issues. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or SOC 1004. Also listed as ANTH 3404. IV W

SOC 3424 Appalachia and the Environment
From the beginning of human habitation to the present, the physical landscape of Appalachia has shaped the culture and society of Appalachian peoples. This course examines the relationship of the physical and cultural aspects of Appalachia, from Ice Age hunters to the present. Recent environmental and anti-environmental movements are discussed. Using anthropological, geographical, and sociological literature, students will develop an understanding of the complex relationship of the physical and cultural landscapes, examine the power of historical trends and legacies, and critically examine stereotypes and commonly held beliefs about the region. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or SOC 1004. Also listed as ANTH 3424. IV

SOC 3744 Population Dynamics
Examines the population dynamics (fertility, mortality, and migration) determining the size, composition, and characteristics of human societies, both national and global. The theory of the demographic transition is examined critically and analyzed as a series of transitions that have complex interrelations central to the human experience today and in the future. Focus is placed on the impacts and consequences of these transitions on social, cultural, economic, environmental, and political systems. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. IV

SOC 4204 Internship in Sociology
A program offering the student supervised placement in organizations providing social services in casework, group work, community organization, administration, and research. Provides an opportunity to work in social sciences and apply principles of other sociology courses. Substantive area of internship and organization to be chosen in consultation with internship supervisor. (1 course unit.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: SOC 1004, 4 course units in sociology or anthropology, and permission of instructor. Atotal of 3 course units may be counted toward major requirements.

SOC 4208 Internship in Sociology
A program offering the student supervised placement in organizations providing social services in casework, group work, community organization, administration, and research. Provides an opportunity to work in social sciences and apply principles of other sociology courses. Substantive area of internship and organization to be chosen in consultation with internship supervisor. (2 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: SOC 1004, 4 course units in sociology or anthropology, and permission of instructor. Atotal of 3 course units may be counted toward major requirements.

SOC 4212 Internship in Sociology
A program offering the student supervised placement in organizations providing social services in casework, group work, community organization, administration, and research. Provides an opportunity to work in social sciences and apply principles of other sociology courses. Substantive area of internship and organization to be chosen in consultation with internship supervisor. (3 course units.) CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: SOC 1004, 4 course units in sociology or anthropology, and permission of instructor. Atotal of 3 course units may be counted toward major requirements.

SOC 4304 Independent Study
Individual faculty supervision of student research and practice in a selected area of sociology. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: SOC 1004 and permission of instructor.

SOC 4444 Senior Seminar/Capstone
A systematic examination of significant problems or issues at the forefront of sociology theory or research. Emphasis on supervised student research and analysis. Prerequisites: SOC 1004, 4 course units in sociology or anthropology, and advanced junior or senior standing in sociology or sociology/anthropology. IV

SPAN 1014 Spanish I: The Personal World
An introduction to Spanish through exploration of the student's immediate world, developing student proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. By the end of the course students will be able to ask for and give information; express their wants, needs, abilities, and obligations; describe people, places, and things in their surroundings; write a basic letter in the language; and give in some detail a report of their typical activities. Laboratory required.

SPAN 1024 Spanish II: The Spanish Speaking World
An extension of Spanish I that moves beyond the student's personal experiences toward an increased linguistic and social awareness of Hispanic cultures. By the end of the course students will be able to narrate past events, demonstrate an understanding of various aspects of the Spanish-speaking world, and formulate briefly a position on an issue treated in the course. Prerequisite: SPAN 1014 or equivalent proficiency. Laboratory required.

SPAN 1034 Spanish III: Topical Issues
An extension of Spanish II that offers a more in-depth look at current issues in Hispanic cultures. Religions, ethnic groups, and demographic patterns will be explored, as will other concerns such as the environment and the economy. Material will include literary texts, films, and productions in the fine arts. Students will give oral and written reports, refute and support positions taken on specific issues, and suggest and negotiate compromises. Prerequisite: SPAN 1024 or equivalent proficiency. Laboratory required.

SPAN 2024 Spanish Conversation
Exercises in conversational Spanish and idiomatic expression. Texts on everyday subjects, discussions, and expose prepared by the student. May be repeated once for credit but increases pattern requirement by 1 course unit. IV

SPAN 2084 Spanish Composition and Grammar Review
Areview of Spanish grammar and syntax. Free composition in Spanish based on texts chosen for style. IV

SPAN 2094 Introduction to Hispanic Literature
A brief survey of Spanish and Spanish-American literature from its beginning to the present. Lectures and reading of representative texts. IVW

SPAN 2214 Spanish for Business
Designed to provide intermediate Spanish students with a foundation in business vocabulary, basic business concepts, key cultural topics, and the situational practice necessary to be successful in today's Spanish-speaking business world. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 1034. IV

SPAN 2294 Special Topics
Study of an area involving the language, literature, or culture not fully treated in other Spanish courses. Topics change and will be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit if the topic is different. Prerequisite: SPAN 1034 unless specific description states otherwise. IV

SPAN 3014 Independent Study and Research
May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

SPAN 3024 Latin-American Literature
Selected readings exemplifying outstanding trends and works in Spanish-American literature. Prerequisite: SPAN 2094. IVW

SPAN 3044 Medieval and Golden Age Spanish Literature
Reading and analysis of representative texts from the Middle Ages through the Baroque. Will include selections of early verse and prose genres, such as the Cantar de Mio Cid, through the works of Golden Age masters, including Cervantes, Lope de Vega, and Calderon. Prerequisite: SPAN 2094. IVW

SPAN 3054 Modern Spanish Literature
Lectures and discussion of Spanish literary trends from the eighteenth century through the present based on critical readings of representative works from the Enlightenment, Romanticism, the Generation of '98, the Generation of 1927, Post-Franquismo, and contemporary literature. Prerequisite: SPAN 2094. IV W

SPAN 3074 Contemporary Latin-American Prose Fiction
Novels and short stories of selected authors in Spanish America. Will include Asturias, Carpentier, Borges, and Garcia M225rquez. Prerequisite: SPAN 2094. IVW

SPAN 3084 Afro-Hispanic Literature
An introduction to the most representative writers of the African Diaspora in Latin America within its socio-historical contexts focusing on different genres of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Students will explore themes of ethnicity, racism, and alienation, placed in the wider global context of socio-politico-artistic movements such as Negritude and the Harlem Renaissance. Writers will include Manzano, Zapata Olivella, Guillen, Morejon, Duncan, Santa Cruz, and others. Prerequisite: SPAN 2094. III A or IV

SPAN 3134 Spanish Civilization
The geography, political history, and cultural development of Spain. Readings will be supplemented by films on Spanish history and culture. III B or IVW

SPAN 3234 Latin-American Civilization
Designed to expose students to the cultural and political development of Latin America from precolonial times to the present. It will focus on cultural themes such as diversity, religion, family, education, and gender issues as well as analyze some myths and representations of the 'other.' The course will examine cultural and ethnic diversity and their role in shaping Latin America. Readings will be supplemented by literary excerpts and historical films. III A or IV W

SPAN 3504 Advanced Special Topics
In-depth study of language, literature, or culture not fully treated in other 3000-level courses. Topics change and will be announced in advance; course may focus on a genre, an issue, an author, or a movement. May be repeated once for credit if the topic is different. Prerequisite: SPAN 2084 or 2094. IV

SPAN 4204 Internship in Spanish
Provides the student an opportunity to apply and improve Spanish language skills and cultural competence through supervised placement in organizations serving Lexington's Hispanic community. The student chooses an appropriate organization in consultation with the internship supervisor. Student will meet with professor to discuss assigned readings. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, Spanish major, demonstrated language competence, and consent of instructor. May be repeated once for credit; however, only 1 course unit may be counted toward the major.

SPAN 4444 Senior Seminar
Designed as the capstone experience for Spanish majors. While focusing on a particular genre, author, or time period, the selection of literary texts is geared to refining students' analytical, interpretive, and communicative skills in Spanish. The course will include oral presentations, research, and writing within the sphere of the course topic. IV

UNIV 1111 Academic Career Skills
A course designed for new students, particularly first-year students. Continues the orientation to college life begun during the orientation period before registration and is concerned with topics such as liberal education, study habits, learning skills, goal setting, time management, selection of major, career choices and planning, and personal development. Required of all new students during their first term in residence. (1/4 course unit.) CR/NC grading.

UNIV 1216 Off-Campus Studies: Regent's College
This course designation is used to allow students to maintain full-time affiliation with Transylvania while participating in off-campus study programs. Academic credit earned via this designator is not applicable toward degree requirements and will be replaced by appropriate transfer credit from the off-campus institution.

UNIV 1217 Off-Campus Studies: KIIS
This course designation is used to allow students to maintain full-time affiliation with Transylvania while participating in off-campus study programs. Academic credit earned via this designator is not applicable toward degree requirements and will be replaced by appropriate transfer credit from the off-campus institution.

UNIV 1218 Off-Campus Studies
This course designation is used to allow students to maintain full-time affiliation with Transylvania while participating in off-campus study programs. Academic credit earned via this designator is not applicable toward degree requirements and will be replaced by appropriate transfer credit from the off-campus institution.

UNIV 1219 Off-Campus Study: Semester At Seminary
Semester at Seminary provides qualified Transylvania University students the oportunity to experience theological education prior to their decision to enter graduate school. Through this uniques program, students can explore their sense of calling and vocation while immersing themselves in the culture of the host seminary. Prerequisite: Junior standing and permission of instructor.

UNIV 4001 Library Research Skills
Through a combination of lectures and personal assignments, all students will be introduced to the types of library resources used at the graduate level as well as examples of essential works in their fields. A review of basic library skills will be included.

WRC 1004 Introduction to Communication
Focuses on the ways we utilize communication in everyday interactions, including interpersonal communication, organizational communication, and persuasion. Both linguistic and nonverbal forms will be analyzed. Only open to first-year students and sophomores.

WRC 1024 Voice and Interpretation
A study of the cognitive, vocal, and non-verbal skills necessary to present effective oral interpretations of literature. Exercises in the use of the voice and body. Applied practice in interpreting prose, poetry, and drama. Standard or CR/NC grading.

WRC 1034 Public Speaking
A study of the selection, organization, preparation, and presentation of public address. Develops research skills, as well as skills in verbal and non-verbal communication of messages. Standard or CR/NC grading.

WRC 1044 Basic Writing
Concentrates on basic skills, including the ability to define a topic, to develop it coherently, and to write correctly. Emphasis on paragraphs and on short descriptive, expository, and persuasive essays, with attention to the improvement of reading skills. Not a substitute for Foundations of the Liberal Arts 1004 or 1104. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

WRC 1054 Introduction to Journalism
Not countable toward English major. Instruction and practice in writing news and feature material, with attention to journalism ethics, editorial writing, and the practices of gathering and evaluating news. Standard or CR/NC grading.

WRC 1064 Argumentation and Debate
The study of the structure and presentation of arguments, focusing on the utilization of argumentation techniques in debate settings. Research, evaluation, and utilization of evidence in support of claims. Development of cases. Reasoning, refutation, and debate strategies. Critical analysis of the arguments of others.

WRC 1071 Speech Practicum
Instruction and practice in competitive forensics. Students will compete in debate and/or individual events (possible categories include interpretation, limited preparation, and public speaking events). Students must take part in at least one tournament for credit. May be repeated 3 times.

WRC 1112 Writing Laboratory
Concentrates on basic skills and forms of expository writing, emphasizing paragraphs and short essays. May be required of students whose writing, in the judgment of the Foundations of the Liberal Arts faculty, requires further attention beyond that available in FLA 1004 and 1104. May also be required of an upperclass student on the recommendation of an instructor, program director, or adviser. Admission of these students will require concurrence with the director of the Writing Center. Any student who registers for this course must complete it satisfactorily to graduate. (1/2 course unit.) CR/NC grading.

WRC 2001 WRC Practicum
Instruction and practice in writing, rhetoric, and communication. Specific content of the practicum will depend on the course designation and student need. Possible examples include Writing Center consultant training in pedagogical theory, publications instruction, and mass media involvement. (1/4 unit of credit.) May accumulate up to 1 unit of credit in practicum experiences. Prerequisite: permission of instructor or department chair.

WRC 2002 WRC Practicum
Instruction and practice in writing, rhetoric, and communication. Specific content of the practicum will depend on the course designation and student need. Possible examples include Writing Center consultant training in pedagogical theory, publications instruction, and mass media involvement. (1/2 units of credit.) May accumulate up to 1 unit of credit in practicum experiences. Prerequisite: permission of instructor or department chair.

WRC 2003 WRC Practicum
Instruction and practice in writing, rhetoric, and communication. Specific content of the practicum will depend on the course designation and student need. Possible examples include Writing Center consultant training in pedagogical theory, publications instruction, and mass media involvement. (3/4 units of credit.) May accumulate up to 1 unit of credit in practicum experiences. Prerequisite: permission of instructor or department chair.

WRC 2004 WRC Practicum
Instruction and practice in writing, rhetoric, and communication. Specific content of the practicum will depend on the course designation and student need. Possible examples include Writing Center consultant training in pedagogical theory, publications instruction, and mass media involvement. (1 unit of credit.) May accumulate up to 1 unit of credit in practicum experiences. Prerequisite: permission of instructor or department chair.

WRC 2044 Gender and Communication
The study of the role communication plays in genderization and the role gender plays in communication. Focus on relational interaction in interpersonal and organization contexts, on mass media messages, and on issues of socialization and power. Also listed as WS 2044. IVW

WRC 2054 Cross-Cultural Communication
The study of the ways people in different cultures communicate differently and the ways in which communication across these boundaries can be enhanced. Analysis of both verbal and non-verbal communication styles, with an interest in interpersonal, organizational, and governmental interactions. IVW

WRC 2214 Business Writing
Designed to help students develop skills in writing, especially for business and industry. IV

WRC 2294 Special Topics in Writing, Rhetoric, and Communication
Introduction to selected topics in communication focusing on concepts and methods used by communication scholars. Potential topics include listening, communication and gender, crosscultural communication, and rhetorical theory. May be repeated for credit as long as the topic is different. IV

WRC 2314 Writing for Writing's Sake
Brings writers together for the pleasure of reading and talking about writing (not to mention the joy of actually devoting time to doing it). This course examines the writing life and offers writers a chance to do what they love to do. Students will write and share, and will poish a portion of their writing for the purpose of compiling an end-of-term collection of the workshop's best and most interesting efforts. IV

WRC 2334 Rhetoric of Resistance
After a brief overview of some key rhetorical principles, this course will examine the practices and strategies utilized by individuals, groups, and movements who have challenged and are challenging concentrated interests of power. Specifically, it examines the South African and international anti-apartheid movement, those individuals and groups who opposed U.S. foreign policy in Latin America during the Cold War and who are continuing to oppose it today, and finally, a courageous group of women in Argentina who publicly challenged the brutal military regime in their country. Examines a wide variety of rhetorical 'texts,' including newspaper articles, underground pamphlets, songs, films, autobiographies, documentaries, photographs, human rights reports, performances, speeches, and books. In addition to reading and viewing these texts, this course will consist of short writing assignments, brief presentations to the class, and a final project. Interdisciplinary course appropiate for those interested in the fields of rhetoric, communication, political science, history, and women's studies. IV

WRC 2354 Rhetoric I: Introduction to Classical Rhetoric
An introduction to the art of rhetoric-a discipline concerned, as Aristotle once wrote, with observing in any case the available means of persuasion. Via close reading, short response papers, group discussions, and a project that employs both a written and spoken component, participants will not only develop a working vocabulary of some of the terms and techniques associated with classical rhetoric but also have ample opportunities to see how such elements function in contemporary texts. Helpful for anyone interested in writing successful arguments regardless of academic discipline. Prerequisite: FLA 1004 and 1104. IV W

WRC 3024 Nonverbal Communication
The study of the way we communicate without and beyond words. The various types of nonverbal behavior, including body language, gestures, paralanguage, and space utilization, will be examined in order to increase understanding of intracultural and cross-cultural communication. Prerequisite: WRC 1004 or permission of instructor. IV W

WRC 3034 Organizational Communication
The study of the ways in which communication affects organizations. Analysis of organizational theory. Focus on concepts of group work, leadership, motivation, formal and informal systems, external and internal audiences, organizational technologies, and interpersonal communication in organizations. Practical application through analysis of a particular organization. Prerequisite: WRC 1004 or permission of instructor. IV W

WRC 3064 Persuasion
The study of persuasion, with an emphasis on the receiver's role. Focus on critical analysis of persuasive messages. Develop understanding of persuasion theory as it relates to individuals, groups, and movements. Particular attention to the persuasive tools of social proof, reciprocity, authority, scarcity, liking, and commitment and consistency. Prerequisite: WRC 1004 or permission of instructor. IV W

WRC 3124 The Art of Persuasive Writing
A study of, and guided practice in, non-fiction writing that builds arguments on topics of social and cultural importance. For upper-level students of all majors, this course focuses on the skills needed for communicating disciplinary knowledge effectively within both academic and civic settings. Students examine a selection of classic essays as well as some good contemporary writing from journals such as Harper's and Atlantic Monthly. Students will be guided toward building essays on topics of their own choosing that use logical and rhetorical strategies in clean, well organized prose. Prerequisite: Junior standing. IV

WRC 3294 Special Topics in Writing, Rhetoric, and Communication
Advanced study of selected topics in writing, rhetoric, and/or communication focusing on concepts and methods utilized by scholars in the field. May be repeated for credit as long as the topic is different. IV

WRC 3354 Rhetoric Ii: Readings in Rhetorical Criticism
Designed for students who are interested in argumentation/persuasion, critical theory, and/or cultural studies. Students will be introduced to various schools of rhetorical criticism (such as feminist, ideological, pentadic, and narrative based approaches) and will read a variety of rhetorical scholars (such as Bakhtin, Richards, Burke, Roucault, and Gates). Prerequisite: FLA 1004, 1104 and WRC 2354 or any 2000-level WRC course or permission of instructor. IV W

WRC 4204 Internship in Writing, Rhetoric, and Communication
A program offering the student supervised placement in organizations providing or requiring communication services. Students might work in human resources, broadcasting, research, or other communication-related areas. Provides an opportunity to work in a professional area of the field and apply concepts learned in other communication and communication-related courses. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: WRC 2034 or 2064 or SOC 2094 and permission of instructor.

WRC 4244 Directed Study in Writing, Rhetoric and Communication
Individual student reading and research in a selected area of writing, rhetoric, and/or communication. Allows students to supplement their study of WRC in areas not covered by existing course offerings. The project must be approved by the WRC program director as well as the student's academic adviser prior to registration. The appropriate faculty member in the program will supervise the directed study. Prerequisite: 4 WRC courses and permission of instructor.

WRC 4294 Advanced Studies in Writing, Rhetoric And Communication
Provides students with an examination of significant issues at the forefront of theory and research in writing, rhetoric, and/or communication. Includes an overview of current research in the field(s) of choice, emphasizing theoretical and methodological issues. Designed primarily to encourage students to engage more deeply with questions that arise from their study of WRC and to provide an occasion for reflection on the work students have done in other courses in the field. The course includes an independent, advanced research project, the topic of which will be chosen in close consultation with the instructor. Prerequisite: 4 WRC courses and permission of instructor.

WS 1004 Introduction to Women's Studies
An introduction to the study of women in society emphasizing the current attempt of feminist literature in various disciplines to explore new ways of looking at the human experience from the perspective of women.

WS 2004 Feminist Philosophies
Covering authors from the 1700s through the present, this course will present a survey, exploration, and critical assessment of the varieties of philosophical thought orbiting around what have been known as the 'woman question' and 'feminism.' Topics may include educational reform, suffrage, equal rights, psychoanalysis, socialism, radical feminism, post-modernism, and feminist critiques of popular culture. Also listed as PHIL 2004. IV

WS 2044 Gender and Communication
The study of the role communication plays in genderization and the role gender plays in communication. Focus on relational interaction in interpersonal and organization contexts, on mass media messages, and on issues of socialization and power. Also listed as COM 2044. IV W

WS 2294 Special Topics in Women's Studies
An intensive study and exploration into specific topics in women's studies that are not fully treated in other courses. May be related to a particular issue, historical period, or geographical area. Usually offered in May term, topics change and will be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit provided the period or topic is different. IV

WS 2314 Gender and Children's Literature
Acquaints the student with issues related to the construction of gender in literature for children and young adults. The focus may change from term to term, so that gender issues in specific genres can be explored in-depth. Students will complete group projects and reflections on films and readings. Prerequisite: EDU 2004, EDU 2024 or WS 1004, or permission of instructor. Also listed as EDU 2314. IV

WS 2414 Sociology of Gender
Intensive study of how social relations between males and females are organized, lived, and understood in the United States, with some emphasis on historical and cross-cultural comparison. Topics include gender socialization, masculinity and femininity, gender at work and in the family, and sex and gender inequality and change. Prerequisite: SOC 1004. Also listed as SOC 2414. IV W

WS 2524 Psychology of Women
Provides an overview of psychological research and theory on women and gender. The course provides analysis of the myths and stereotypes associated with women and men in society, the social and psychological gender differences that have been identified in the research, and the evidence and theoretical arguments concerning the origin of these differences. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. Also listed as PSY 2524. IV

WS 2554 Human Sexuality
Explores the psychological and physiological aspects of human sexual behavior. Emphasis is placed on the cultural and biological diversity of sexual expression. Prerequisite: PSY 1004. Also listed as PSY 2504. IV

WS 2934 Gender, Culture, and the Social Body
Investigates sociological and anthropological perspectives on the body. Topics include an analysis of body modification and alteration, (diet, exercise, bodybuilding, scarification), and bodily decoration (tattooing, body paint, jewelry, ceremonial clothing). The course poses questions such as: How are issues of power and domination written into cultural scripts about ideal forms? How does bodily decoration convey gendered meanings and statuses? Explores how processes of development and capitalism have transformed understandings and attitudes about beauty, clothing, and the 'ideal' body. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or SOC 1004. Also listed as ANTH 2934 and SOC 2934. IV

WS 3124 Women in American Life and Thought
An examination of the role of women in American life and thought involving an analysis of the changing roles of women from the colonial era to the present. Focus on the varieties of women's experiences at every level of social life, in the professions, and in the family, as well as women's struggle for suffrage and equal rights. Prerequisite: HIST 1154 or WS 1004. Also listed as HIST 3124. IV W

WS 3134 Women in Art
A study of major issues about women and art from the Renaissance to the present. Discussion will center on the nature of images made by women and on the social, political, and economic forces that shape women's work. Special emphasis will be placed on women as patrons, collectors, and models. Seminar format with extensive readings and research paper. Also listed as ART 3124. Prerequisites: Any 1000-level art course, Art 2144, or permission of the instructor. IV W

WS 3144 Gender in European History
Investigates how understandings of gender have affected European women and men from the Enlightenment to the contemporary era. Topics covered may include the relationship of gender to the revolution, industrialization, imperialism, totalitarianism, and total war, as well as the role of gender in everyday life. Also listed as HIST 3144 IV

WS 3204 Reading and Representing Women's Lives
Directed toward students with previous work in women's studies scholarship and is open to students from any major discipline. Explores and critically assesses certain interdisciplinary aspects of women's studies that relate to the 'reading' and representing of women's lives. Examines women's lives in the United States, and considers the possibilities and problematics of locating similarities and differences among women in specific global contexts. Topics may include women's historical movements, global feminism, equal rights, health and bio ethics, violence against women, and feminist critiques of fine art and popular culture. IV W

WS 3244 Global Feminisms
Designed to introduce students to women's issues, experiences, and activities from outside of the United States, focusing on areas generally understood to be part of the 'Third World.' Using an interdisciplinary and comparative approach, students will draw on various methods of analyzing and understanding the production of gender relations and the webs of power within which women's lives are situated. Cultural dimensions of gender and power will also be considered. Topics studied may include colonialism, globalization, maternity and reproductive rights, violence, population and poverty, sexuality and sex work, women's activism, and grassroots cooperatives. Each time the course is taught, the focus is on three major world regions, exploring the above issues within each one. Also listed as ANTH 3244. III A or IV W

WS 3424 Women in Education
Examines the impact of women on philosophical foundations in the field of education and the subtle forms of sexism that undermine the education of girls and young women in current educational contexts. Students will examine work of historical and contemporary women philosophers to understand their unique contributions to the field of education. Students will also examine developmental needs of girls and current research on gender inequities within schools. Prerequisite: Completion of Area II Social Science and EDU 2014. Also listed as EDU 3424. IV W

WS 3514 Gender in Cross Cultural Perspective
Provides analysis of the cultural conditions (both material and ideological) that shape the meanings underlying masculinity and femininity in various cultural contexts. Perspectives from Marxist and feminist theory, political economy, psychodynamic/psychological anthropology, and evolutionary psychology are utilized to understand gendered differences in cultural behavior. Prerequisite: ANTH 1024 or WS 1004; and at least 1 2000 level or above anthropology course. Also listed as ANTH 3504. III A or IV W.

WS 3534 Black Feminist Theory
Examines critical and theoretical issues in Black feminism from the 19C to the present, focusing on the influential contemporary black feminist intellectual tradition that emerged in the 1970s. From this perspective, students will explore certain themes and topics, such as work, family, politics, and community, through reading the writings of Black feminists. We will also study the ways in which women and men have worked together, towards the eradication of race and gender inequality, among other systems of oppression, which have historically subjugated Black women. Although emphasis will be placed on Black feminist traditions in the United States and Britain, at the end of the semester we will consider Black feminism in global perspecitive. Prerequisite: WS 1004 or PHIL 2004/WS 2004, or permisison of instructor. Also listed as PHIL 3534. III B or IV.

WS 4204 Internship in Women's Studies
The internship program is designed to provide students with opportunities for learning and working in organizations in ways that connect their course work in women's studies to specific issues in community settings; this may include legal, medical, governmental, political, educational, or other organizations. Working with a women's studies faculty member, the student will design a project based on volunteer work in a community organization serving the needs of women. Throughout the term, the faculty member will closely supervise the student's work. CR/NC grading. Prerequisites: Three courses in the women's studies minor, including WS 1004, declared women's studies minor, and permission of the instructor.

WS 4244 Directed Study in Women's Studies
Individual student reading and research in a selected area of women's studies. Allows students to supplement their study of women's studies in areas not covered by existing course offerings. The project must be approved by the Director of Women's Studies as well as the student's academic adviser prior to the student's registration for the course. The directed study will be executed under the supervision of the appropriate faculty member. Prerequisites: Four courses in the women's studies minor, including WS 1004, declared women's studies minor, and permission of the instructor.

WS 4294 Advanced Studies in Women's Studies
This interdisciplinary course provides students with an examination of significant issues at the forefront of feminist theory and research, as well as the principal theoretical debates in women's studies. The course includes an overview of current research in women's studies, emphasizing theoretical and methodological issues, the development of women's studies as a field, the relationship of women's studies to traditional fields, and the nature of interdisciplinary research. It is designed primarily to encourage students to engage more deeply with questions that arise from the study of women's studies, as well as provide occasion for students to reflect on work done throughout the major or minor. The course also includes an independent, advanced research project, the topic of which will be chosen in close consultation with the instructor. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in women's studies and permission of instructor. IV

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